Antibiotic resistance research

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:English

Document 1

Bacteria can be able to use most of the inorganic and organic compounds as food, while others can be able to survive in the most extreme conditions (Didelot et al. The bacteria have been considered as the first organisms to make an appearance on earth more than 4 billion years ago. One of the oldest fossils is known to be bacteria-like organisms. Viruses are much smaller than the bacteria and are the parasites which do not have the capacity to reproduce and thrive outside a host body and which are microscopic in nature. Viruses are regarded and have the reputation of being the leading causes of contagion. In many states, countries patients are known to purchase the antibiotics over the internet even without consulting a doctor.

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Patients are known to take antibiotics without consultation while treating viral illnesses such as common cold. Some of these bacteria are practically and naturally resistant to some types of antibiotics. Moreover, bacteria can also become resistant to antibiotics in mainly two ways: by acquiring resistance from any other bacteria or through genetic mutation (Didelot et al. Bacteria can be able to get genes which are resistant from the other bacteria through several ways. Viruses, on the other hand, become resistant to the antivirals or any other drugs used upon them since they change targets which the drugs and antivirals have been sent to work on. The viruses and bacteria usually evolve very fast through making a copy of their own in large numbers, which leads to a different virus and bacteria so an antibiotic has no target.

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Through changes in its form, the drug which is used to harm is overworked by attacking viruses until the drug has no more strength while the virus is still multiplying (Gao et al. Every individual type of virus in the generation of the viruses has to mutate in one point or another, and this happens when there is a drug that has been introduced to destroy the virus which causes a drastic mutation of the DNA. For example, mutation is a very common thing when it comes to the HIV viruses. Such kinds of decoys such as the sulbactam are already in use to block the beta-lactamase enzymes which are involved in destroying the drugs. Another developed way of dealing with antibiotic resistance is through interfering with the mechanisms which promote the antibiotic resistance by trying to kill the bacteria.

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