Budgeting and Budgeting Process in International NGO

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Accounting

Document 1

Research Philosophy Research philosophy alludes to the conviction with respect to the way in which information concerning the phenomenon ought to be gathered, analyzed and utilized. In other terms, it is the fundamental belief system that guides the research. There are five major philosophies in business and management: Positivism, critical realism, interpretivism, postmodernism, and pragmatism. Positivism is a philosophical framework recognizing only that which can be scientifically verified. Critical realism refers to a philosophical approach that incorporates a general philosophy of science with that of social science to illustrate an interface amongst social and natural world. It serves to create hypotheses or ideas for potential quantitative study. Note that, it is likewise used to uncover slants in opinions and thoughts. It simply dives deeper into the issue (Creswell & Creswell 2017, p211).

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In my case, I am going to use a Qualitative approach to this research. This approach will enable me to uncover the trends in opinions and thoughts of my sample. The reason for utilizing a minimal sample of 50 participants drawn from International NGOs is due to the limitation of resources, time and availability of sampling techniques that support the sampling protocols. Sample Design In the investigation, the analyst will utilize a non-probability and purposive sampling technique in which questionnaires and interviews will be conveyed to every one of the respondents in time about planning and budgetary administration of International NGO. In this specific situation, non- probability and multi-cluster examining systems will be utilized as a part of choosing the required respondents who in turn will give the essential data about the organization.

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According to MUTARA (2013) p21, the traits of these type of research design is that samples are picked based on the subjective judgment of the study, instead of random selection; probabilistic methodologies which are the core aspect of probability sampling strategies. Data Collection The data collected from test respondents will be open-ended interviews and questionnaires. For instance, Kimani (2014) p30, researched to determine costs management planning in various organizations by use of questionnaires and interviews. Therefore relevant information will be gathered utilizing questionnaires and interviews which will be edified for consistency and completeness. In this research I will use constant comparative analysis as my qualitative analytic strategy. This strategy entails taking single piece of data that is, one interview, single statement and single theme and comparing them with all other distinct or similar so as to establish conceptualizations of the potential correlations amongst various pieces of data.

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Data on Financial measures will be drawn from the NGOs annual reports. Besides, my research is so long making it hard to perform and produce a massive amount of documentation. Another limitation of my research is possible presence of untrue information (Peersman 2014, p12). This is possible because my study will use interview and questioners that leaves room for samples to give unreliable information. Furthermore, time is a limiting factor in collecting enough data to back up my conclusions. Bibliography Adongo, K. Kimani, R. N.  The effect of budgetary control on effectiveness of non-governmental organisations in Kenya(Doctoral dissertation, Master thesis, School of Business University of Nairobi), pp. MUTARA, M. D. and Thornhill, A. Understanding research philosophies and approaches limited edition: Research methods for business students, pp.

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