Non experimental research Literature Review

Document Type:Article

Subject Area:Psychology

Document 1

The research does not have the manipulation of an independent variable, and it cannot give strong evidence of the changes in the dependent and the independent variables. There are broad categories of non-experimental research: descriptive, archrival, correlational and survey research. In survey research, the researcher designs a questionnaire to collect information about people’s opinion or behavior. The questionnaire can either have open-ended or closed questions. In some cases, the survey research can be used to gather information after individuals have been exposed to the variable of interest which the researcher might have manipulated. Secondly, one should know how it will add value to his research in addition to other methods. The other step is finding ways to collect the data and how he will organize the data.

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Lastly, one should ask himself whether other methods will be necessary and if so, how they will add value to the research. One method of non-experimental research design is the observation research method. Quantitative experimental design Quantitative method concentrates on statistical and mathematical analysis to manipulate data using computational techniques. In public health, the evaluations about psychotherapy should be conducted jointly with evaluations about pharmacotherapy. The debate about using a control group to evaluate the efficiency of psychotherapy has existed for a long period of time. According to Klein, a control group can be used in psychotherapy research to find psychological treatment for certain conditions. Control groups can be subdivided into four main types: the historical, placebo, non-treatment and dose-comparison concurrent control.

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The type of control group that one uses mainly depends on the type of patients and the treatment that should be administered. In Sally Rogers’ article about participatory action research (PAR), she claims that this kind of research offers a paradigm that involves consumers in rehabilitation research and evaluation programs. In PAR, the participants of the research are involved actively with the researcher from the first step of the design to the presentation and discussion of the results; it mainly emphasizes that the researcher is the observer and the consultant of the study. The main difference between PAR paradigm and traditional research paradigm is that the traditional research emphasizes of learning about the research subject while the PAR emphasizes on learning from the research subject (Springett, 2017).

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PAR is a formative approach that attempts to solve social problems by re-directing its energy from gathering facts to applying formative psychology. Applying PAR model means that the research activities cannot be conducted by one researcher working in isolation. During these phases the following elements are essential. They include reflection, dialogue with others, listening to other people’s voices and taking action. Mixed method design The mixed method research design involves analyzing and integrating both qualitative and quantitative research (Creswell, 2018). By incorporating them, the researcher increases the breadth of understanding while reducing the weaknesses involved in using each approach independently. This method allows the researcher to use several means and resources to examine a specific phenomenon. Second, hopelessness reduces the performance of behaviors that promote health.

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