The governance mechanism and their role in the reduction of administrative corruption in public offices

Document Type:Dissertation

Subject Area:Law

Document 1

Importance of the corporate Governance in Addressing Corruption 7 2. The interest of the Donors in curbing corruption 8 2. Business and Personal risks arising from corruption 9 Significance of the problem 10 Analysis of theoretical basis for the study 10 Synthesize and critical analysis 11 Problem statement 11 Research questions and hypothesis 11 Hypothesis 12 Research Methodology 12 Research design 12 Sample size 13 Data analysis 14 Bibliography 15 The governance mechanism and their role in the reduction of administrative corruption in public offices. Introduction Defining corruption What is corruption? The definition of corruption has been provided in different perspectives. According to Vito Tanzi, “Corruption is the intentional non-compliance with the arm’s-length principle aimed at deriving some advantage for oneself or for related individuals from this behavior. ” From this definition, there are three elements which have been incorporated in it. The element one is that of the arm’s length principle whose requirement is that personal relationships should not take any part in making economic decisions which may involve more than a number of parties1 All economic agents should receive equal treatments which is essential and vital for any good working economic market. Biasness towards some economic agents actually violate the principle of Arm’s length. This satisfies a necessary condition which aggravate corruption. If biasness does not exist, there would be no corruption that would exist or arise as well. There are two different forms of deriving the advantage and benefits for the economic agents which are corrupted. Another necessary condition for corruption is the non-compliance with the principle of Arm’s principle. as the first condition, the biasness should be intentional or the so called the accidental violation of the principal of the Arm’s principle.

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For instance, imperfect information may not necessarily represent corruption. Corruption is an act which is dishonest, bad and wrong. It is antithetical and immoral to what any society can define its virtues. It involves the misuse or abuse of the authority and position bestowed and trusted on you. Corruption is breaking the law as it involves deviation from what is right leading to accidental or intentional biasness so that one may acquire unlawful gain in the expense of others. Thus, corruption can be defined as the misuse of power entrusted to someone for the selfish gain. Thus, this definition involves the main cause of corruption in the public offices and the abuse as well as its relationship with the state. It is right to say, corruption as an illegal contract, its cost is multiplied and hence making it to be so expensive to the country and the sectors affected.

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This paper is aimed at investigating the form an intensity of corruption globally in developing countries. The study will emphasize more on public sector because it is one of the sectors which have been heavily affected by corruption. Once the nature and causes of corruption is identified the possible remedies will be suggested so as promote economic growth in these countries. Types of corruption The theoretical perspective on corruption determine the type of corruption defined. Corruption can destroy a business firm as well as the livelihood of its stakeholders who entirely depend on the success of these firms3 According to Transparency International (TI) and World Bank, corruption can be defined as the misuse of the public office for the purpose of self-gain. In may involve unlawful and improper behavior of the officials of the public such as civil servants and politicians through which their position positions have created an opportunity for diverting assets and money from the government to their accomplices or even themselves.

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Corruption affect government performance and resource allocation and hence its effects varies from one country to another. All the political and corporate institutions must forge a relationship between their administration and the public and private sectors to oversee their running4 Corruption is viewed as one of the system failures in governance. This proposal seeks to explain the role of governments in the fight against corruption5 United Nations conventions against Corruption The only recognized and instrument that is legal to fight against corruption it is the United Convention against Corruption. The role of governance in corruption will be looked into. Additionally, the literature relating to the variables under question will be explained. Various weaknesses are the previous researches will be explained so as to build the research. Who is responsible in containing corruption? It is right to say that the fight against corruption should involve everyone in the society.

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All parts of the society should have a good share of the responsibility in fight against corruption so that it can be contained. Where bribery is involved, a collusion between a dishonest leader and other private and public officials as well as a benefit in form of kind and money to all the parties involved. Mostly, corruption takes place in the interaction between the private and public sectors. It is commonly practiced by the public officials whose responsibility is directed to deliver necessary services to the citizens and the public at large. Apart from these common features, corruption have different characteristics that varies from one region to another. Corruption thrives well in different places in the following forms. It has also demanded a number of academic interests from a good number of academicians in their research.

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Research has confirmed that corruption is one of the hindrance to the development of economy. Studies have confirmed that alleviation of poverty is an impossible thing if corruption is not curbed. Most of the donors are interested and concerned proper management and running of the public sector as well as creating an enabling environment that the private sector can operate from. Most multilateral donors will never be involved in giving their donation if corruption is detected. When a business operates without placing the necessary anti-corruption measures in place, there is a high chance of these businesses to be faced with a number of implications namely legal liability, increased operational cost, reputation risk, reduced access to the necessary capital as well as getting debarred from the tenders11 Significance of the problem The main aim and purpose of this study is to find out the best ways and mechanisms the government and the corporate world can put in place for effective governance and as well as ending the rising levels of corruption.

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This paper will also mention how compromised governance has affected the delivery and ethics in both the government offices and in the corporate world. The paper will try to find out the best mechanisms for minimizing or even ending the increased level of corruption in the government and also in the corporate offices. This study will be made possible through the support that will be accorded to me by various offices I will be visiting for interviews and hence I will have the first hand information. To make it possible and in order to obtain reliable responses I will obtain the first hand information on how corruption and poor governance has affected the proper service delivery in these offices12 The research looks into the various ways in which the corruption is manifested and the various ways it can be shunned in the public and private sectors.

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The external community that is stakeholders has a task of carrying proper scrutiny to the governance. Problem statement Corruption has become order of the day in most countries both in the public and private sectors. It has caused the strength to survive by the poor too slim and to some extent it has already eaten deeper into the life and fabric of a nation. Generally, corruption has been reported high in the public sector then in the private sector. It has been confirmed that the office holders at the local, state and federal level engage more in corruption. This study will examine the magnitude and the extent of corruption as well as the government mechanisms to curb the problem. Research questions and hypothesis This research study will be guided by the following research questions; How does corruption affect the public, the corporate and the private sectors? What is the role of governance in curbing the inherent corruption in these sectors? Is the public aware or otherwise what in the role of the public in corruption manifestations? What is the role of the international bodies in the fight against corruption? Do cultural factor, beliefs and practices have any part in entrenching corruption? Hypothesis This research study will be guided by the following research hypothesis; H1- corruption is highly manifested by the top leadership in the public, private and corporate sectors H0- corruption is not manifested by the top leadership in the public private and corporate sectors.

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Research Methodology The advantage of using this method of sampling was because the method has a reduced chances of biasness, it makes the exercise quicker since all respondents are knowledgeable and have good understanding of the subject matter hence can easily respond13 Research design This is a descriptive study that is aimed at obtaining the necessary information from the affected people as well as the people who understand and have full knowledge of the subject matter. The study will involve a deep study on the governance mechanism and their role in the reduction of administrative corruption. Questionnaires will be designed comprising questions which will be asked face-face from the selected respondents. In this case ME = 0. Z= 1. p= 30% Substituting these figure from the above formulae we get the sampple size as 0. n) Rearanging the values while making n the subject of the formulae n can be made the subject of the formulae to estimate the size of the sample size; (0.

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n) =(0. j. econmod. GRAYCAR, ADAM, and DIEGO VILLA. The Loss Of Governance Capacity Through Corruption.  Governance, vol 24, no. org. za/learn-about-corruption/what-is-corruption/our-definition-of-corruption/?gclid=CjwKCAiAn5rUBRA3EiwAUCWb2_MZ6iClSkp17wozBYOf3PveaN9FQjFEv9pcrzKzGTbXNeGDAwTw_xoCv1wQAvD_BwE> accessed 16 February 2018 Recanatini, Francesca et al.  Seeds Of Corruption. Washington, D. C. com/content/dam/Deloitte/ru/Documents/finance/role_corporate_governance_sullivan_eng. pdf. United Nations Convention Against Corruption' (Unodc. org, 2018) <https://www. unodc.

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