Barriers and Benefits to Implement Green Roof System in Hong Kong
Introduction 8 The relationship between Green roofs and Reduction of Ambient Carbon dioxide concentration in the Environment 8 Green roofs as a technique for thermal reduction and energy saving. Theoretical Framework 10 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. Introduction 19 3. Research Design 19 3. Data Analysis 24 3. Reliability and Validity 24 3. Instrument Validity 24 3. Instrument Reliability 24 3. Ethical Consideration 25 4. Hong Kong is ranked as one of the larger cities in the world that is densely populated and undergoes gradual technological advancement. The town has its own unique climate because of the prevalent gaseous emissions to the atmosphere which has been clearly linked to the phenomenon of global warming or climate change by the scientists. The end outcome of this unique climate is vast environmental issues including extreme thermal heating hence increase indoor discomfort to the city's residence, higher atmospheric temperatures, heavy precipitation and even increasing amounts of greenhouse gases such as higher rates of carbon dioxide (Asmat Ismail et al.
Carbon dioxide emissions among other greenhouse gases are the critical propellers of climate change, and some scientists argue that these causes are a result of natural variability while others say that human activities are the primary causes triggering climate change in the major cities (Oh and Chua, 2010, Nordell, 2003). The reason why Hong Kong has the unique warmer climate is that the increased emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere forms a blanket thus lessening the ability of the earth surface to reradiate solar heat to the atmosphere. Therefore, intensive system is generally cumbersome and requires a specific structural support from the building (Molineux et al. On the other hand, the extensive green roof system is described by thin substrate layer of soil spread over a wide area with low level planted vegetation, and can be very lightweight in structure hence these roofs demands for minimal or no specific structural support from the building (Castleton et al.
Unlike intensive system, this system is requires low maintenance, not costly and designed for limited human attention and access. In an extensive network, plants grown have shallow rooting, high regeneration, and offer resistance to direct insolation, strong winds or torrential downpour, and must be a suitable ground cover species that slopes up to 3o percent (Long et al. Cresswell, 2007). It’s also aimed at developing design guidelines and determining government support for green roof system. Literature Review 2. Introduction This section gives a brief of work already done that is related to the study on Barriers and Benefits to Implement Green Roof System in Hong Kong and Promotion to adopt vegetated roof system through Support by Government. It will give a critical review of the literature reviews and suggestions on areas that have not yet been researched.
The relationship between Green roofs and Reduction of Ambient Carbon dioxide concentration in the Environment. Vegetated roofs can improve thermal regulation in the cities by reducing absorption of solar radiation o earth's surface as well as a reduction in daily thermal variations and annual thermal fluctuations. Through the application of sizeable green roof surfaces, they can lead to improved performance of the building on thermal regulation (Eumorfopoulou and Aravantinos, 1998). According to study that has been conducted by Niachou et al. found that the temperature readings inside the building with the green roof are lower as compared to indoor temperatures of a structure without green roofs. They carried out measurements of the roof temperatures in a non-insulated building with or without green roofs.
has conducted research to find out the importance or how green roofs play a role in controlling surface water runoff, and thus this was one of the research that has been done pertaining green roofs role on stormwater management. As for this research, the findings show that green roofs are crucial when it comes to stormwater management since 50 percent of the precipitated volume annually are removed from the ceiling via retention and evapotranspiration. On the other hand, Berndtsson et al. carried out comparative research to find out and the distinctive quality of runoff water between intensive and extensive green roof. Using the study done on the influence of intensive vegetated roofs in Japan and extensive vegetated roofs in Sweden on runoff water quality, Berndtsson et al.
This paper investigates vegetated roofs in Australia, describes the challenges to adopting and applying the use of green roofs and identifying main information gaps that require further research in order to enhance stewardship in the green roofing industry in Australia. Wilkinson and Reed, 2010) did research by compiling a unique building database putting together information about 536 commercial buildings and carried out in-depth analysis and evaluation of the potential suitability of replacing the rooftops of each building with either partial or full vegetated roofs. A reasonably small proportion of vegetated roofs coverage is found appropriate, partly as a result of local climatic conditions and rainfall patterns of the particular area, and the physical property stock. A precise physical assessment carried out showed that only a tiny part of central business district (CBD) stock is found suitable since these buildings that are identified are likely to be in low secondary locations, ungraded buildings, privately owned, concrete framed and not overshadowed by adjoining properties.
The primary purpose of this research is to find outbuildings which under vegetated roofs provide a surface area making significant to reducing environmental impacts experienced within the entire city or region. Li et al, 2010) carried study on the significant effects of vegetated roofs on the higher concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere which is the key driver of climate change. The study systematically examines the effect of vegetated roofs on the emitted carbon dioxide in a particular location through use of field measurements, laboratory experiments and deductions from numerical simulations. Green plants uses carbon dioxide as one of the component for their food synthesis, so plants takes in carbon dioxide in air by absorbing during the day hence reducing the amount of carbon dioxide concentration in the environment.
For instance, during sunny summer season in Hong Kong, the carbon dioxide rate of absorption of a plant is higher in daytime as compared to rate of CO2 emission at night. The effectiveness or rather the extent at which green roofs reduces the concentration of carbon dioxide in the surrounding atmosphere is determined by condition of the plants, the position or the slope of the green roof in relation to reachability of solar insolation, and the immediate surrounding air circulation condition. C average during daytime, whereas inside the building temperature decreases reach up to 11. C maximum and 9. C daytime average, again for hot and arid Riyadh. Therefore, the deduction as per this quantitative data on temperatures decreases is that during hotter and drier climate the effect of vegetated roofs on urban temperatures is much greater and the vice versa is also true.
There are numerous researchers that have been conducted on energy and building. The reduction of strength of solar heat by the vegetation is evaluated as well as the thermal insulation capability of the vegetated roof structure. By quantifying the daily energy flow in terms of temperature through the roof surface show that vegetated roof outdo conventional roof as far as performance is concerned, hence reducing the daily energy demand. Concerning water management, it has been found out that vegetated roofs play an essential role in mitigating stormwater runoff generation even in the Mediterranean climate as it enhances runoff reduction in capacity through retention and evapotranspiration, maximum reduction of the strength of solar radiation and increases the concentration-time hence increased absorption of excess solar heat.
Despite such promising performance of green roofs, low performance is often observed during rainy periods. On the other hand, (Castleton et al. The results of the study showed that stakeholders were interested in extensive green roofs as they portrayed a firm believe that extensive vegetated roofs are much suitable for application in North Texas. The results were concluded due to the concerns raised by the stakeholders with regard to description and structural properties and requirements of this type of green roof system which include plant selection, lightweight conditions, low and affordable initial costs, the city codes as per construction design and guidelines for construction, and the aesthetic value of this kind of green roofs. Stakeholders among other Developers and city officials showed their intense interest for the performance of vegetated roofs in the adverse conditions of the North Texas climate, whereas architects and landscape architects shared their confidence and information on the full range of benefits and suitability for this area.
Generally, perceptions on extensive vegetated roofs were highly favorable although inadequate research on this field and costs issues were traced as the often obstacles to its implementation hence calls for further research and concerns raised on costs issues. Research on design guidelines of vegetated roof systems has been done, with the main focus of the research is identifying and giving a vivid description of the proper and suitable design guidelines as a necessity for the two types of green roof systems with the specification of each to structural support. It explains the research scope and limitation, research design, data source, study population, data collection methods and data analysis. Research Design A research design is a basic plan that guides data collection.
It also guides the analysis face in a research project. It specifies the information which is to be collected, data source and data collection methods. Type of Research In the study, description research was adopted to explore the benefits and barriers to adopt and implement green roof system and how promotion and support by the government can help overcome the obstacles to adopting it. The sample size used because of financial constraints and time limit was 45. N) 45(1+384/N) = 384 45 + 17280/N = 384 N = 50 which is the study population of less than 10 000. Research Scope and Limitation The targeted population for this research includes developers, architects, real estate investors and landscape architects in Hong Kong who work and relate closely with the Hong Kong-based Chinese construction industry.
The Individuals for the sample group will be selected using simple random and non-probability sampling procedures because as providers of vegetated roofs, their opinions and actions may directly have an influence on the green roof development. The grouping of the building and construction experts as per the specifications of professionalism will make it easy to identify differences in views among them. Observation was used for the purpose of collecting primary quantitative and qualitative data. It was divided into three locations of the investigation. Respondent examined include real estate managers, buyers, developers, architects and landscape architects among residents who had previous or current experience on the performance benefits of green roofs in the extremes Hong Kong climate. They shared information on the benefits of full-scale green roof systems in the application in response to adverse climatic conditions experienced in terms of reduced environmental impacts and increased economic benefits.
A respondent who was being interviewed includes architects and developers among some of the real estate managers and city officials. The outcome of case study to the researcher is that he or she may attain a better understanding of why such case occurred as it happen, and what might be the important topics or areas for further research especially areas that are not addressed on in the case study. Data Analysis The main aim of conducting analysis of data collected is to produce actual and meaningful results or findings as it is evidenced in the study area. Data was being coded and processed to remove ‘outliers’ information and analyzed using statistical package for social science. Both descriptive and analytical procedures were used in the analysis of the findings from the study area.
Reliability and Validity 3. Firstly, the consent of every respondent was soughed. At the beginning of every observation, the purpose of the research was clearly stated. The respondents were then given a chance to ask any questions before issuing out sheets of a problem. Moreover, participation was held voluntary, and issues concerning confidentiality of discussions and recordings were discussed with the participants and adhered. Findings and Discussion 4. The culture of social responsibility among the buyers is still not so well cultured and has thus not been meaningful. People generally felt that living in environmentally friendly houses is not significant and therefore should not be worth any extra cost. The developers from the data collected believed that there is no widespread demand for green buildings in the country.
Despite this, it is not as gloomy in the state as developers have started to develop and encourage the construction of houses fitted with green housing systems. This developers have begun to play a more significant role in the building and development role in the culture of green housing and have thus cultivated a sustainable building future on the green house. The developers have the right to enjoy the benefits and mitigate the barriers that arise as result of this and encourage green housing development and inhabitation. How this Barriers can be mitigated Research form this study found out that the financial and further market-based incentives for the green housing adoption in Hong Kong ranked as the most significant barrier to the implementation.
Spurs form the government and other private money lending institutions in the country have had an enormous role to play in the construction industry. Financial institutions in the country that have an interest in the green housing system have had a high level of influence in the driving the developers to adopt this housing strategy. This research proves the viewpoint held by various researchers in the industry that the incentives schemes are very crucial and essential for the development and the promotion of the green housing. The implication of this is that making information available to the public is an effective way of ensuring the adoption of the green housing system. Due to the high levels of investment that's is required, the investors are more likely to invest in the project when they have knowledge of the benefits of the green housing system.
This finding bears a close resemblance to one that was done by Potbhare et al. that argues that the availability of better information on the costs and the benefits of the green housing guideline was highlighted as the building guidelines and among the top strategy towards the adoption and creation of public culture towards the green housing. The government needs to improve the communication based on the green house in the country as it would help strengthen its adoption in the country. Findings from this research have indicated that whether it is because of the higher initial cost of the capital or due to the hindrance discussed above such as the lack of interest by the buyers or the market demand, the adoption of the green housing system is one of those projects that people would hesitate in its passage unless there is a legislative framework that would compel people to do so.
Thus, it is essential for the government to put in place policy framework that would facilitate promotion and adoption of it. Wong et al. found out that the mandatory rules and policy framework by the government were the most critical and essential factor in for the success of the green housing in Hong Kong. Furthermore, in China, policy formulation and pressure have been accredited for the successful implementation in the country. For instance, in Singapore, the government has been able to launch green building rating system and labelling programs that have helped to nurture and grow professionalism in three industry. It is as a result of this actions by the government that we have Green Mark Professionals, the Green Mark Managers, and the Green Mark Facilities Managers.
Although there exists international green hosting rating in Hong Kong, there is a need for a national green housing rating system as scores in different countries differ and thus there is a need for the adoption of the country-specific local environment and to adopt more comprehensive policies and framework in place that is country specific. In addition to the approval of such grading systems in the nation, effort needs to be put in place to increase and maximize its effectiveness in order to play a significant role in the adoption and the promotion of such. Provision of educational programmers to the developers, policy makers, buyers and the contractors in Hong Kong is another critical area that needs to be improved. This way, it would be more accepted in the society and between individuals.
While educating the various critical stakeholders in the industry would be vital, it is essential that the government can also engage the public on the educational programs. The entire audience should be involved in the educational programs to enhance the attractiveness of the green housing systems by the various members of the society. The attitude of the community towards green housing system would often translate to increase in market demand; this would, in turn, impact the corporate behavior. Conclusion and Implications There are various barriers that are encountered in the development and implementation of green housing projects across the life cycle of the construction such as the design, the structure and the operation of such buildings. The government also needs to stimulate demand for green housing system in the country; this can be achieved by educating the public on the need to implement such in the hope of getting increased public interest.
Further research and studies are needed in the country to study further the barriers that have identified in Hong Kong. Green building technologies are gaining an increased interest all over the world. This is because the adoption of green housing systems in the world is a way of enhancing sustainability in the field. To be able to promote the widespread adoption of the green building technologies in Hong Kong, this study has gone further to identify the strategies that are important and critical. Potted plants on flat roof as a strategy to reduce indoor temperature in malaysian climate. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3. Oh, Tick Hui, and Shing Chyi Chua. Energy efficiency and carbon trading potential in Malaysia. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews 14.
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