Factors that affect both skilled and unskilled laborers in terms of their labor productivity
The main aim of the stated initiative is to understand the workforce in the construction industry in order to facilitate cost savings and efficient use of resources. The study aims at comparing and contrasting factors affecting the labor productivity for the skilled and the unskilled laborers in different categories. The main method used in acquiring information is the use of questionnaires, however, secondary data is also used to make sense of the primary data obtained. In the paper, 31 selected factors set in 6 different categories have been used. The categories include technology, finance, unforeseen factors, project characteristics, project management and human labor category. Over the last decade, there has been the development of work equipment's and machinery, this has led to improved productivity in the construction activity.
Despite the improvement, the construction industry still remains a labor-intensive industry with labor cost still taking a big portion of any construction project cost. According to Hickson, & Leighton, (P. 9), labor costs take up to 30 to 50 percent of the total construction cost. In 2012, the United Kingdom construction industry spent over 27,709 million Euros in labor costs which amount to a third of the of the entire business portion (Hickson, & Leighton, P. 3 Aims and objectives 1. 1 Aims The main aim of the study is identifying the key factors that affect labour productivity for both skill and unskilled labourers on construction sites while also stating the benefits of effective labour productivity in construction projects. 2 Objectives i. Understanding the significance of labour productivity in the construction industry ii.
Identifying the factors that affect the labour productivity in construction sites. The non-repetitive factor of construction projects makes them unique and complex. Despite lack of a standard system, many researchers are contented with the definition of productivity which is the ratio of output to input. In addition, construction productivity can be stated as the measure of outputs that are obtained by a measure of inputs (Naoum, P. Due to the productivity definitions above, two measures emerged. One of the measures of construction productivity is the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) / Multiple factor productivity whereby all inputs and outputs are put into consideration (Jarkas, P. The construction industry is complex and is associated with a great amount of risk. Despite its complexity, the construction industry plays a vital role in the United Kingdom.
The construction industry greatly influences the economy because as of 2014 it had an economic output of 103 billion Euros which was 6. 5 percent of the entire economy (Zaid, Jones, & Holgate, P. According to Chapman, in recent time the construction industry has received a lot of attention concerning labor productivity. 77) a lot of factors affect the labour productivity in the construction, however, the factor can be labeled into different categories as follows labour/ human, project finance, project management, project characteristics, unforeseen characteristics, and technology. A construction project is always dependent on the location which in turn influences the factors that affect labour productivity depending on the location, the methodologies to be used in the construction varies. CHAPTER THREE Research methodology 3. 0 Introduction This section provides information on the approaches that were used in achieving the aims and objectives of the study.
The data collection instrument and the process used is explained. The feedback obtained from the researchers was also easy to measure and analyze. Many of the studies done before have integrated statistical methods for data quantification (Thomas, & Sudhakumar, P. The research will also quantify data to ensure that information is more reliable. The data collection method is not tiresome as the questions require less writing and they are quick to answer. Tick boxes were adjacent to the questions same to the numerical scoring and yes or no phrases. The different platforms include e-mail, online surveys, and hard copies. The use of questionnaires is very practical and the structure and design of the questionnaires can be transformed into an attractive model. The use of questionnaires is very effective as it enables the researcher to capture a large audience while ensuring privacy and anonymity is maintained Dalati, & Jorge, (P.
Questionnaires are very advantageous as data analysis is very quick. 4 Structure of the questionnaire. Section three was the biggest and main section and it was filled with close-ended questions. Data obtained in this section will help indicate the major factors that influence labour productivity. The end of section three was a comment section which was open to all the participants to explore their views and provide more information if they please. 5 Data analysis In the data section, the Relative Importance Index (RII) will be used in the identification of factors that impact labor productivity greatly. In past studies, RII has been used and the results have been valid and reliable. Variety of respondents reduces the likelihood of bias within the study, ensuring accuracy of the analysis and recommendations.
The skilled labourers group in particular completed the highest number of questionnaires and all of the respondents were eligible to complete the questionnaire in terms of their job position. One of the requirements for the participants to participate in the survey, they should have experience. All the participants had experience with the least being 4 months. From the answered questionnaires it is clear that an array of construction workers participated, for example, quantum surveyor, building surveyor, senior scaffold, digital engineer, design manager, engineers, site managers, common labourers, delivery managers and construction managers. Age affects the completion time of a construction project. For the unskilled casual labourers, they are mainly between the ages of 18 years to 30 years. The young are energetic unlike the older.
However the old, who have more than 30 years of experience, hold offices as manager. Their experience makes them the best individuals to make construction decisions, therefore, avoiding future complication that might be made by young and inexperienced individuals (Burtonshaw-Gunn). From the participant feedback individuals with the lowest experience were 2 months and the highest above 30 years. Table 1 clearly proves that the level of skill and experience has a great effect on labor productivity as it is ranked number one. As shown in Figure 1, experience influences labor productivity in the construction industry. Through experience, activities will be done effectively. Participants from survey some have worked or are still working on projects ranging from 200,000 Euros to more than 300 million Euros. The results of the research as outlined above, identify pertinent factors that affect the productivity of both skilled and unskilled labourers in a construction project.
The questionnaires covered an array of factors that take pre-eminence as the most integral parts of a construction project. These factors are the human resource question, finance, project management, project characteristics, technology and lastly unforeseeable factors. 1 Human Resource The human resource factor deals with personnel involved in the construction project. As seen in table 1, the level of skill and experience of the personnel takes the forefront in influencing the productivity of the personnel. Delayed and/or late payment of wages and salaries to the workers affects their motivation whereas inadequate funds will lower the productivity of the workforce. It is important to agree on how the considerations will be paid whether in a lump sum or on daily disbursements so as to have adequate funds and avoid disputes.
More so, the scope of the worker should be defined and fixed so as to avoid overstretching of the labourers and poor estimation, which lowers the productivity of the workers. Table 2: Perceived importance of factors Influencing labour productivity in United Kingdom in regards to project’s finance Factor Relative Importance Index (%) Rank Late/delay of payment 82. 47 1 Inadequate supply of funds 80. 4 Project Characteristics A project is defined by different characteristics that describe a project. Those characters of the project have a huge weighing on the productivity of laborers. In table 4, the results show that where a project is physically located, the condition, access and topography of that location, largely affect the productivity of the people working on the site. A project that is located in remote areas, that are far, will likely record low productivity especially if the labour force for the project have to brace a long commute and transport charges.
Consequentially, the scale of the project and the complexity of the project designs will determine a project success or its failure. 6 Unforeseeable Factors Any project, construction or not, will face numerous challenges that cannot be foreseen and therefore one cannot plan for them. On-site accidents, the weather conditions, the ground conditions and natural disasters otherwise reffered to as Acts of God, are among the array of unforeseeable factors that will determine the productivity of a project. Table 6 shows that unexpected conditions when they occur, may limit the productivity of a labour work force and it becomes hard to recover as they are uncontrollable. Table 6: Perceived importance of factors Influencing labour productivity in United Kingdom in regards to unforeseen factors Factor Relative Importance Index (%) Rank On-site accident 80.
87 1 Poor weather conditions 78 2 Ground conditions necessitating revisions 55. 1 Significance of Labour Productivity The construction industry has remained robust in the UK and has continued to be a major contributor to the economy of the nation. It continues to be labour intensive, Vis a Vis the advent of new technologies in construction. Labour is a huge asset in the construction industry and has a direct effect on the performance of a project. It is a determinant of the cost of a project and the time specifications of different projects, therefore affecting profitability of organizations and the economy at large. To have the labour force productive, improvement and development of productivity becomes a pertinent and integral consideration. The level of experience and skills is crucial and for any organization in the construction industry, they should ensure that in all level skills and experience are on point to prevent outcomes that are disastrous.
As discussed in chapter four, there are various factors that affect the productivity of the labour work force in a construction. This factors will determine whether productivity is high or low and as discussed above, the significance thereof is paramount and will determine the performance of the project and the efficiency of the project. These factors were the human resource question, finance, project management, project characteristics, technology and lastly unforeseeable factors. These are the determinants whether productivity will be high or low. 2 limitations of the Research In the conducting of this research there were some limitations. First was lack of successful response. Out of the 43 issued questionnaires, only 18 respondents gave feedback and therefore inhibiting the possibility of having a comprehensive variety of primary data to derive results and discussions from.
Additionally, some information was omitted due to credibility of some of the respondents who could not be trusted as they had answers beyond the scope of their labour classification. Additionally, the time constraints were a challenge especially when the respondents did not respond on time and took longer than expected to respond to the questionnaires. This enhances quality supervision of the project which in turn enhances productivity of the labour force. Further, project characteristics like complexity of design/ build ability, value of the project, site location and environment, site condition; access and topography all influence the productivity of the labour force. Such conditions therefore should be incorporated in the plan for the project which seeks to alleviate any challenges that may arise from the site characteristics.
Consequently, it is this research’s recommendation that technology should be embraced in the construction industry. New technologies help with performing complex tasks, which would require intense human effort and high quality. "Factors affecting construction labour productivity for Malaysian residential projects. " Structural survey 23. Ahmed, Husam M. , and Rosnah Mohd Yusuff. "Factors Affecting Quality During The Construction Phase In Iraqi Government Companies. Cheng, Ying-Mei. "An exploration into cost-influencing factors on construction projects. " International Journal of Project Management 32. Dalati, Serene, and Jorge Marx Gómez. "Surveys and Questionnaires. Ellis. "Factors affecting construction labour productivity in Trinidad and Tobago. " The Journal of the Association of Professional engineers of Trinidad and Tobago 42. Hiyassat, M. A. Kazaz, Aynur, and Turgut Acıkara. "Comparison of Labor Productivity Perspectives of Project Managers and Craft Workers in Turkish Construction Industry.
From $10 to earn access
Only on Studyloop