Brand image and its influence on repeat purchases

Document Type:Thesis Proposal

Subject Area:Employment

Document 1

Name…………………………………………………………………………… Student Number………………………………………………………………. This thesis has been submitted for the award of Master’s Degree in Management with my approval as the University Supervisor. Signature ……………………………………. Date …………………………. Instructor’s Name (Insert) Professor, Department of Marketing Rennes School of Business Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 6 Background of Study 6 Brand Image 8 Problem Statement 8 Research Questions 9 Research Objectives 10 Significance of the Study 10 Chapter Two: Literature Review 11 Theoretical Review 11 The Bettman Information Processing Model 11 The Nicosia Model 12 The Howard Model 13 The Engel-Blackwell-Miniard (EBM) Model and the Factors that Influence Consumer Behavior 15 Empirical Review 20 Brand Identity and Repeat Purchases 20 Brand Personality and Repeat Purchases 24 Brand Association and Consumer Loyalty 26 Brand Competence (Benefits) and Repeat Purchases 28 Chapter Three: Methodology 29 Research Design 30 Target Population 30 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques 30 Construct Measures 31 Brand Identity 31 Brand Personality 31 Brand Association 31 Brand Competence 32 Data Collection Methods and Instruments 32 Validity and Reliability of Instruments 32 Research Process 33 Chapter Four: Results/Findings 33 Brand Personality 36 Brand Association 37 Brand Competence 38 Pearson Correlation: Brand Identity, Personality, Associations, Competence and Brand Loyalty 39 Chapter Five: Discussion and Analysis 39 Brand Identity and Brand Loyalty 40 Brand Personality and Brand Loyalty 41 Brand Associations and Brand Loyalty 43 Brand Competence and Brand Loyalty 44 Chapter Six: Limitations 45 Chapter Seven: Conclusions and Recommendations 46 Reference List 47 Appendix A: Questionnaire 51 List of Tables Table 1: Summary of Research Schedule…………………………………………………….

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The study achieved a one hundred per cent questionnaire retrieval. The research found that brand identity, brand personality, brand associations and brand competence had a strong correlation with brand loyalty. It, therefore, concluded that brand image had a major influence on brand loyalty. The study, however, recognized the narrow focus and recommended that the findings provide a basis for further comprehensive studies to establish the exact rating of sneaker brands in France and the factors that drove the ratings. Chapter One: Introduction Background of Study Consumer loyalty is a major concern for business brands because it is the one factor that will lead to repeat purchases of the brand’s products. Nam, Ekinci and Whyatt (2016) conducted a similar study in the hotel and restaurant industry and reported that consumer perceptions of the value the hotels and restaurants offered led to repeat patronization of the entities.

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In a study of consumer loyalty on beverage brands in Nigeria, Oladepo and Odunlami (2015) reported that the brand image of the beverages and the promotional mix were the decision factors the consumers employed in developing loyalty towards brands. The marketers of the brands that aligned their promotional mixes to the beverage brand images had better results in winning consumer loyalty. Although the results from the studies above came from research in diverse industries and geographical locations, the prevailing finding was that brand image was a critical factor in winning brand loyalty among consumers. The results, therefore, can be used to inform studies in any field in any location. Brand Image The concept of brand image is widely discussed in the marketing industry.

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Many researchers and marketing professionals have varying understanding of the components of brand image. According to Sasmita and Suki (2015), brand image reflected the self-expression of the brand to capture the values and preferences of the consumer. The authors proposed that brand awareness and brand personality were major elements of brand image. Oladepo and Odunlami (2015) suggested the brand image had elements of the product itself and the attendant marketing activity by the manufacturers. In addition, local brands have emerged to give the global market leaders stiff competition for market share. In the year 2018 alone, the market for sports apparel and footwear grew a whopping four per cent to post revenue of €6. 68 billion (NPD 2018). In the same year (2018), the French population was estimated at 66 million (Worldometers 2019).

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It, therefore, means that the French person spends an average of €101 on sneakers annually. Specifically, the study examined the impact of the brand image of the sneaker brands on the repeat purchases by French consumers. The study focused on the Brittany city of Rennes with a population of approximately 210,000 in 2019 (Population City 2019). The findings were then generalized to the rest of the population of France. Research Questions In the quest for understanding the influence of the brand image of the sneaker brands in France, the study asked the following questions for guidance: i. What is the influence of brand identity on repeat purchases of sneakers? ii. At the time of the study, no academic research was available on the matter in France.

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In addition, the study findings would be useful for manufacturers of sneakers and other persons intending to enter the business in future times. It would help such business people to improve the image of their brands to reflect the desires of the people with relevance to sneakers in France. Last, it was hoped that manufacturers would improve the quality of sneakers for the benefit of French consumers from the findings of the study. Chapter Two: Literature Review Theoretical Review There exist many models and theories that attempt to explain the behaviour of individuals when making the decision to purchase an item. Third, the consumer acquires information and evaluates it to decide what product can meet his or her needs most. The decision component is pervasive in all the stages as the consumer constantly evaluates all the alternatives available to determine the most viable solution.

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Finally, the consumer purchases (consumes) the product and learns its attributes in practical use. The experience of the consumer after the first purchase influences the future (repeat) decisions regarding the product. The Intermediate Process The process exists in four components: perceptual encoding, processing, memory and external search and the scanner and interruption mechanisms. Overall, however, it provides a basic understanding of the information processing process. The Nicosia Model The Nicosia Model is an interactive model that attempts to show the intricate interrelationships between the individual consumer factors, the decision-making process and the marketing communications provided by the organization (manufacturer) of the product. According to Padhy (2011), it recognizes the influence of the organizational marketing material on the consumer and the response of the consumer to the marketing information from the organization.

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Basically, the model consists of four elements: exposure (to the marketing messages from the organization), search and evaluation, the purchase and the feedback from the consumer. The message exposure comprises the firm’s attributes (from the perception of the consumer) and the individual consumer factors that drive the consumer predispositions. The Howard Model The Howard Model was first proposed in the 1970s but it has undergone many revisions after empirical testing. This paper examined the latest and final Howard Model that had been revised and modified by various authors and researchers by 1994. The Howard Model examines the consumer decision-making process at the various stages of the product life cycle. According to Robertson (2011), the extensive decision-making stage corresponds to the introductory phase of the product life cycle, the limited decision-making stage occurs during the growth stage of the product life cycle and the routine decision-making stage corresponds to the maturity phase of the product.

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The Howard Model proposes that at the introductory phase of a product, the consumer conducts extensive decision-making because he or she has not formed any perception of the product or product category (Robertson 2011). The attitude (A) of a consumer towards a brand determines the likelihood of a consumer considering the purchase of the product. The consumer develops the attitude depending on their perception of the ability of the product (brand) to satisfy their need. The measure of attitude is a matter of contention with researchers arguing that it is multidimensional. In turn, the attitude of the consumer determines the confidence (C) they will develop towards the product (Sheth 2011). The confidence refers to the certainty of consumers regarding the correctness of their judgment of the product.

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Individual Factors The EBM Model recognizes that individual differences play an important role in the purchase decision-making process. It suggests seven factors that cause individual differences in consumer purchase behaviour (Gbadamosi 2016). i. Consumer Resources The model asserts that consumers have three major resources that influence their purchase decisions. Time is the first resource. The knowledge includes specific attitudes and beliefs towards specific brands and product categories. A knowledgeable consumer, therefore, begins the purchase process at an advanced level compared to the consumer with little information. The knowledgeable consumer spends less time making a purchase decision than the ignorant consumer does. iii. Attitude The information a consumer possesses on a product shapes his or her perception of and disposition towards the product.

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For instance, a dominant consumer could opt for a big car with a presence on the road over a small car offering the same service at the same price. vi. Values The individual beliefs about acceptable behaviour and life perception influence the consumer purchase decision. Values could be personal or social to reflect the level of acceptance at the society level or at the individual level. Individuals strive to embrace both their personal values and social values. Padhy (2011) for instance adds that the French have a culture of communal (social) dining while Americans are individualistic in their lives. The feeding habits, family relationships, time consciousness and the importance of time are all cultural impositions. These cultural impositions provide the segmentation that marketers use in categorizing their customers.

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Social Class Societies exhibit a division into social layers whose members share similar values, interests and lifestyles. According to Sheth (2011), the major social division occurs around the socio-economic status that determines the tastes, values and purchasing power. The influencer determines the criteria of choice and identifies the possible alternatives (Gbadamosi 2016). The decider is the member of the family with the financial authority to determine what the family can spend on a suggestion. The buyer is the person that goes to the shop to make the actual purchase. The users are the final consumers of the purchases. These roles are easier to make when the influencer is also the decider. The need may be triggered by internal stimuli such as hunger or some form of physical discomfort.

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External stimuli such as conformity can also create the desire to purchase a certain product. Search for Alternatives In the second stage of the decision-making process, the consumer searches for information necessary to meet the need recognized in the first stage. The search begins internally and if there is no need for further search, the consumer makes the decision. According to Sheth (2011), consumers with brand loyalty quickly search for the information in their memory to make the purchase decision. The comprehension stage follows in which the consumer analyzes the information he has paid attention to in order to identify the most favourable alternatives. The consumer then goes into acceptance if the information is relevant and the consumer believes the product can meet his or her need.

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Last, the consumer stores the information in memory for future use in conducting the actual purchase and repeat purchases. Padhy (2011) notes that the current market has excessive marketing information and that consumers only process the most relevant information. The remainder is discarded. Divestment After making use of the product, the consumer determines whether to dispose of it or to sell it off. In the current world of sustainability, the possibility of recycling the product or putting it into other uses is critical in the purchase decision and marketers cannot overlook it. Empirical Review The theoretical review examined the underlying environmental and situational elements and the psychological processes that influence consumer behaviour. Empirical studies test the theories to determine the extent of the effect of the factors on the actual purchase behaviour of consumers.

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The theoretical review recognized the role of the marketing communications and the response of consumers to the messages to create an image of the brand and its positioning in their minds. The import of the finding was that managing brand reputation distinguished the brand from competitors. The relationship between individual similarities and brand identity was positive for companies that manufactured several close products. The social benefits and brand personality also showed a strong positive correlation with brand identity. In a study of the relationship between the brand identity and the loyalty of its employees, Azizi and Khatami (2016) defined brand differentiation as the components of the brand identity. The study identified brand credibility, brand trust and brand relationships as the components (differentiation) of the brand identity.

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The differences in the definition of brand identity point to the controversy surrounding the concept of brand identity and branding in general. Azizi and Khatami introduced the human and organizational elements of brand identity into the definition while Tamimi and Odidi (2016) focused on the non-human elements. Irrespective of the differences in the definitions, the two papers recognize that the physical elements and the relationships between the manufacturer and the public are critical in the perception of the customers regarding the brand. It can be concluded from the two papers that communications and physical elements are as important as the relationships the organization develops with the public. In a completely different approach, Balmer and Chen (2016) demonstrated the effect of corporate brand identity on the identity of the consumers and vice versa.

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The shop and the people of China, therefore, were both conferring identities on themselves. Patterson (2011)’s study of Ireland’s attractiveness as a tourist destination agrees with the reciprocal conferment of identity between a product and the consumer. The study examined the attractiveness of Ireland as a tourist destination and found the country had unique historical and cultural pasts that differed significantly from the remainder of Europe and indeed even the rest of the United Kingdom. It suggested that the country had a different cultural past beginning with its religion where the majority of the population was Catholic unlike the remainder of the UK that was protestant. The difference in religion and the consequent persecution of the people created a strong sense of nationalism among the Irish, a pride that exists to date.

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It is notable however that the reasons for the preference for the foreign (imported) shoes were more about the reputation of the countries of origin rather than the quality. The shoe customers, therefore, preferred specific countries of origin to others. This finding supports other findings that the reputation of a brand constituted part of the identity of a brand. At the time of writing this thesis, the role of brand identity on the choice of sneakers in France had not been studied academically. The study, therefore, filled a gap in the knowledge regarding the choice of sneakers and the brand image on repeat purchases. Many studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between the personality of a brand customer loyalty (repeat purchases).

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In a study of the relationship between brand personality and customer loyalty, Roustasekehravani et al. (2014) found that the brand personality influenced the type of relationship and the strength of the relationship between customers and the brand. The authors, therefore, suggested that marketers need to establish and maintain good relationships with customers to maintain the personality of their brands. The author recognized that brand personality dimensions are susceptible to change and that they were not fixed. He suggested that brand identification with several traits led to confusion and it would fail to attract any particular market segment. Su and Tong (2016) carried out a more thorough study on brand personality, customer satisfaction and consumer loyalty. The study investigated the brand personality of various denim jeans and the effect of the personality of the brands on the loyalty of US students.

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The study sample was 474 students, a large sample by the size of the population of the students and therefore the results were reliable. In addition, the study used 51 of the 114 character traits suggested by Aaker in her research findings on brand personality. Sun and Tog’s study reported a diff3erence in the perception of denim jeans by women and men. While men considered the denim a practical and rugged outfit, the women considered it attractive. The result offered interesting anticipation in this study in the perception of sneakers between the French in terms of gender. In another study, Tong, Su and Xu (2017) conducted research on the customer perception of the brand personality of luxury as a follow up to the previous study.

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In view of the high markup for luxury items, Tong, Su and Xu explored the functional dimension of luxury goods, their experiential dimension and the symbolic dimensions. Marketers, therefore, make an effort to influence the associations that consumers develop with their products. According to Tan, Colakoglu and Oztosun (2016), consumers can associate products with some attributes, the benefits the consumers get from the product, attitudes, interests or celebrities. Whatever the nature of the association, the marketer’s aim was to create positive associations with his or her product. Sasmita and Suki (2014) add that brand association is the major promoter of brand recall. When the consumers etch the brand in their permanent memory, they recall it instantly whenever they feel the need to make a certain purchase.

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They further found that teenagers under the study reported that the strongest associations were unique. The feature of uniqueness was an important differentiating factor that set the product or brand aside from the competition, making its recall easy. The study also focused on young people (teenagers) as the population segment for the study. Nevertheless, it does not in any way suggest that only young people develop associations with brands. The analysis of the results using the Pearson correlation was a reliable analytical tool, making the study sound. Importantly, however, all the studies acknowledged that brand association and brand image were part of branding. Brand Competence (Benefits) and Repeat Purchases Irrespective of the customer perception of a brand and its products, consumers first and foremost want a product that can satisfy their need.

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Consequently, the product and the brand must meet the expectations of the customer in terms of performance. In fact, according to Hossain and Ahmed (2018), the major reason consumers purchase a product is their perception of its ability in functionality to meet the purpose for which it is made. If a product failed to meet its functionality, then all the positive perception towards the brand and products would be lost. Consequently, brand competence played a more important role than the actual phone did. Even where some phones from rival companies offered better performance and quality, the consumers preferred inferior smartphones from the brands they had confidence in with regard to quality and they were willing to pay higher prices for them. The findings of Hossain and Ahmed (2018)’s study agreed with the findings of Teimouri et al.

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(2016)’s study on the role of brand personality and customer loyalty. The study explored the impact of branding on customer loyalty for Samsung smartphones. Overall, therefore, the brand competence in meeting the functionality and quality perceptions was critical in winning customer loyalty. Chapter Three: Methodology This section covers the research design for the study, the target population, sampling and sampling techniques, data collection methods and instruments, construct measures, validity and reliability of instruments and data analysis techniques. Research Design The research employed a quantitative descriptive correlational design to establish the correlation between brand identity, brand personality, brand association, brand competence and customer loyalty to the brands. The study measured the effect of the independent variables (identity, personality, association and competence) on the dependent variable (customer loyalty) through the number of responses.

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The numerical data obtained from the responses were analyzed using statistical methods to arrive at conclusions. Although Roscoe suggested that any sample between 30 – 500 was sufficient for such a study, the researcher opted for a high number because of the large number of sneaker brands in France. Selecting a sample of 30 ran the risk of underrepresentation and some brands could be left out. On the other hand, the study deployed 400 questionnaires to cater to spoiled instruments. For sampling purposes, the research employed stratified random sampling techniques. The stratification was done on the basis of the quartiers of the city. Some space in the research instrument was provided for respondents to indicate the competing brands they knew. In that manner, the study was able to establish that the respondents were favourably aware of their preferred brands and they were not choosing them out of ignorance.

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Brand Personality The study identified five attributes and ten traits that it used to measure the personality of the brands. Typically, the justification of the few attributes and traits was to identify the most popular brands and the factors that made them so. According to Gossling (2017), successful brands exhibit a strong association with few attributes. Data Collection Methods and Instruments Quantitative data was collected using a survey. Surveys have the advantages of ease of development and deployment. The study questioned respondents randomly on the streets of Rennes provided they were adults. The accessibility of the respondents was therefore not an issue. According to Kuada (2012), surveys permit the researcher to collect much data in a short time. The instruments were pretested and retested before deployment.

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Corrections were made to the instruments after each pilot study before they were used in the main data collection exercise. Data Analysis Techniques The data were analyzed using statistical methods because of their quantitative nature. Research Process The research began with a discussion of the research topic with the supervisor after the researcher and the supervisor agreed on the current topic. A preliminary literature review was conducted to inform the correct position and to assist in the design of the research. 47 Total 384 100. 00 Educational Level Baccalauréat 15 3. 90 Diplôme 61 15. 89 License 190 49. 48 Maîtrise 101 26. 01 per cent) while those aged 51 – 60 were 35 (or 9. 11 per cent). The second smallest age group was the respondents aged above 60 at 21 or 5. 47 per cent. In terms of education levels, the largest number of respondents had a bachelor’s or a master’s degree with bachelor’s degree holders (license) standing at 190 (or 49.

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Table 3: Brand Identity Top Sneaker Brands of Choice Nike 67 17. 45 Adidas 31 8. 07 Converse 27 7. 03 Sézane 23 5. 98 Puma 34 8. 86 Y-3 15 3. 91 Others 12 3. 13 Total 384 100. 00 The initial part of the question sought to establish the most popular brands of sneakers in Rennes. The brands that were named were many but the most popular are the ones listed above. 03 per cent while Veja and Asfvlt followed at 6. 51 per cent and 6. 25 per cent respectively. Sézane and Lanvin were next in popularity at 5. 98 per cent and 5. 86 per cent. Other brands were mentioned by one respondent each and they were lumped together as “Others” to represent the many brands that exist but the consumers could not easily recall. Brand Personality The following table shows the most valuable attributes of the sneaker brands valued by the respondents.

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Collating the sneaker brand personality attributes together to identify the most frequent attributes, the following table illustrates the outcome. Table 4: Most Valuable Attributes of the Sneaker Brands Valued by the Respondents Attribute Brand of Sneaker Percentage Competence Nike 17. 85 Total 17. 18 Excitement Veja 6. 51 Agnes B 4. 69 Y-3 3. 91 Total 15. Le Coq Sportif and Puma were strongly associated with ruggedness while Veja, Agnes B and Y-3 were top for excitement. St. Laurent Paris, Balenciaga, Prada and Gucci were most popular for sophistication. A similar question was asked for the traits of the sneaker brands to triangulate the findings for the attributes and the results were similar. The traits associated with the attributes above were mentioned with the brands to confirm that the respondents considered the personality of their sneaker brands as recorded above.

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07 Converse 7. 03 Others 3. 13 Total 74. 29 Celebrity Y-3 3. 91 Veja 6. The brands that were selected by respondents because of belief in their quality were Nike Lanvin, Asfvlt, Sézane, Le Coq Sportif, Puma, Adidas, Converse and the minority others. Y-3, Veja and Agnes B were preferred because of their associations with celebrities. In some cases, the “celebrities” were not renowned celebrities in the real sense of the word but they were individuals around whom the respondents modelled themselves. Sometimes, the models were just mentors that the respondents had seen with the brand for the first time and the image remained in their minds. The respondents who preferred St. 07 Converse 7. 03 Others 3. 13 Total 74. 29 Comfort Y-3 3. 91 Veja 6. Nike, Lanvin, Asfvlt, Sézane, Le Coq Sportif, Puma, Adidas, Converse and other small brands were preferred by respondents because they believed that their sneakers were durable.

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On the other hand, Y-3, Veja and Agnes B were preferred because of their comfort. The respondents who preferred St. Laurent Paris, Balenciaga, Prada and Gucci preferred them because they were expensive. Pearson Correlation: Brand Identity, Personality, Associations, Competence and Brand Loyalty A Pearson correlation was conducted for the four independent variables with the dependent variable and among the independent variables themselves and the following results were established: Table 7: Pearson Correlation Loyalty Identity Personality Association Competence Loyalty Corr. The hypotheses are analyzed below from the findings. Brand Identity and Brand Loyalty The first underlying hypothesis of the study was that the brand identity of the sneakers had a strong influence on repeat purchases. From the findings, the Pearson correlation between brand identity and brand loyalty was 0.

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986, the highest correlation over the study. A (positive) correlation of 0. (2015)’s finding that the younger consumers were more flexible than the older consumers were. Another interesting observation was that brand awareness had some correlation with the educational level of the respondents. The assumption of the study was that the educational level reflected the income levels of the respondents. Specifically, the study assumed that respondents with higher education had higher incomes than the respondents with lower education did. For instance, all the respondents who identified the premium brands of Prada, Gucci, Balenciaga and St. The strong recall for brands was also strongly correlated to the key need (motivating factor) of the customer. Customers whose needs were prestige recalled the premium brands while customers whose key need was the durability recalled common old brands.

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Brand Personality and Brand Loyalty The second underlying hypothesis for the study was that the personality of a brand had an impact on brand loyalty. The results confirmed that consumers perceived the different brands to possess different personalities. In a confirmation of the finding of Roustasekehravani et al. At the same time, brands that were less expensive attracted the preference of lower income earners who preferred them for their low price and durability. The attributes that most middle-income earners identified with their brands were competence and ruggedness. The brands that were selected by the middle-income earners were Nike, Lanvin, Asfvlt, Sézane, Adidas, Converse and others. The brand prices were average but they were of good quality. The respondents reported that the brands were affordable, durable and comfortable.

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According to De la Paz Toldos-Romero and Orozco-Gomez (2014), Aaker’s theory of brand personality associates each attribute with specific traits. The respondents who preferred the premium brands and identified “sophistication” as the most important attribute also selected “glamorous” and “charming” as the traits, they associated with their brands. The respondents who selected the attribute of “ruggedness” selected “outdoorsy” and “rugged” as the traits of their brands. A similar observation was made with other attributes and traits. In summary, the study confirmed categorically that the brand personality strongly influenced brand loyalty. At the same time, the young respondents in the 21- 30 age bracket identified the “celebrity” association with their brands dominated by Y-3, Veja and Agnes B. The selection of the associations reflecting the demographics of the respondents agreed with the literature of Durrani et al.

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(2015) that asserted that consumers preferred brands that espoused the same values they did. From the findings of the study, the middle-income earners valued “value for money” in their choice of sneakers. The consideration for “high quality” implied a preference for sneaker brands that offered value for money. Ashraf, Naeem and Shahzadi (2017) particularly warned on the use of celebrities to promote brands because when the celebrities fall out of public favour, the brand image suffers alongside them. Brand Competence and Brand Loyalty The fourth and last underlying hypothesis of the study was that brand competence has a major impact on the repeat purchases of a product. Brand competence was a measure of the motivating factor that drove the consumer to develop the purchase intention.

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The study reduced the brand competence into “comfort”, “durability” and “cost”. From the study, the middle-income earners were driven by the durability in their preference for Nike, Lanvin, Asfvlt, Sézane, Le Coq Sportif, Puma, Adidas and Converse brands of sneakers. It only identified the most important function the shoe served. The findings of the study agreed with the findings of the study by Khan et al. (2016) that irrespective of other customer preferences, the most important consideration was the performance of the brand. The Pearson correlation of 0. 846 was confirmatory of the validity of the hypothesis that brand competence influenced brand loyalty. Chapter Seven: Conclusions and Recommendations The four components of brand image considered by this study all showed a strong correlation with brand loyalty.

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The four also showed a strong correlation among themselves, implying that customer perception was inclined to follow a specific path depending on several environmental and customer factors. The responses and preferences of the customers showed unique tendencies that re4flected their personalities, age and income. It can, therefore, be concluded that personality, age and income were strong indicators of the choices of the consumers in making the purchase decision. The study provided a good insight into the customer preferences with regard to sneakers in France. M. , Salleh, S. M. , & Bin Halim, F. Brand equity and brand loyalty: New perspective. , & Khatami, M. A. The impact of brand identity and brand loyalty credit sales agents: Mediate satisfaction sales agents. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, February Special Issue, 758-766.

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Retrieved from http://www. academia. edu/19580677/CORPORATE_HERITAGE_BRAND_ATTRACTIVENESS_AND_NATIONAL_IDENTITY_2016_Journal_of_Product_and_Brand_Management Belk, R. W. Research in consumer behaviour (Vol. Bingley: Emerald. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 5(7), 87-96. Retrieved from https://doi. org/10. 11114/ijsss. v5i7. Retrieved from http://dx. doi. org/10. 1108/EBR-03-2013-0046 Durrani, B. A. , & Lizanets, V. (2019) "The impact of brand personality on consumer behaviour: the role of brand love", Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Issue: 1, pp. 30-47, https://doi. org/10. Retrieved from http://www. ijbmi. org/papers/Vol(7)8/Version-4/E0708044754. pdf Isoraite, M. Brand image development. , & Keller, K. L. Marketing management (14th ed. Essex: Pearson Education. Kuada, J. International Journal of Business Administration, 5(4). Retrieved from http://dx.

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doi. org/10. 5430/ijba. Universal Review, 7(7), 745-756. Retrieved from http://universalreview. org/gallery/102-dec. pdf Morency, C. (2018 February 28). tr/download/article-file/255734 Nam, J. , Ekinci, Y. , & Whyatt, G. Brand equity, brand loyalty and consumer satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. Retrieved from https://www. npd. com/wps/portal/npd/us/news/press-releases/2018/france-sports-apparel-and-athletic-footwear-industry-grows-4-percent-to-6-68-billion-euros-over-the-12-months-ending-september-2018/ Padhy, M. K. Advertising management: Theory and practice. Rennes: Popultaion. Retrieved from http://population. city/france/rennes/ RajagopaL,. Consumer behaviour theories: Convergence of divergent perspectives with applications to. Delhi: Business Expert Press. B. A. , Haghkhah, A. , & Pooladireishahri, M. Do brand personality really enhance satisfaction and loyalty toward brand? A review of theory and empirical research. Sheth, J. N. Models of buyer behavior: Conceptual, quantitative, and empirical.

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Decatur, Georgia: Marketing Classics Press. Shopand box. Brand personality, consumer satisfaction and loyalty: A perspective from denim jeans brands. Family & Consumer Sciences Research Journal 44(4), 427-446. Retrieved from https://libres. uncg. edu/ir/uncg/f/J_Su_Brand_2016. The Relation between Consumer and Brand Personality: Example of yemeksepeti. com. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 6(12). Retrieved from http://hrmars. com/hrmars_papers/The_Relation_between_Consumer_and_Brand_Personality_Example_of_yemeksepeti. 5539/ijbm. v11n2p1 Tong, X. , Su, J. , & Xu, Y. Brand personality and its impact on brand trust and brand commitment: An empirical study of luxury fashion brands. ) • Celebrity (Please name celebrity here…………………………) • Other (Please state what you associate most with your brand)…………………………………………. Brand Competence Which of the following best describes your experience with your sneakers? • Comfortable • Durable • Expensive Brand Loyalty Please check the most appropriate option for you with regard to your loyalty to the brand of your sneakers • I am fiercely loyal • I am loyal • I am neither loyal nor disloyal • I am disloyal • I am strongly disloyal Which of the following best describes the likelihood of you purchasing that brand of sneakers again? • I will definitely purchase it • I will purchase it • I may or may not purchase it • I will not purchase it • I can never purchase it again Comments Please make any comment(s) about your brand of sneakers that you feel is relevant to this study: Thank you for your time!.

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