Can human evolution coexist with the abrahamic religions
The paper shall evaluate the implication and impact of Darwin’s theory in the Abrahamic religion with consideration of the critics on both concepts. Apart from Abrahamic religion, consideration will be offered to other significant religion such as Hinduism and Buddhism, their perception and impact towards Darwin’s model of evolution. The paper will offer a comprehensive conclusion based in the understanding of human evolution and its interaction with these religions with the desire to establish whether the two viewpoints can coexist in the society despite their contradiction and convergences. Introduction The evolutionary theory has wide reaching influence on the religious faith and ignites a heated discussion on the impact, benefits and issues raised by the advent of the evolution theory on Abrahamic religion among other religions.
Based on this background, this paper will seek to critically establish whether Darwin’s theory of evolution can coexist with Abrahamic religion among other religions given its impact on various religions as well as society. With the recent development in molecular paleontology and carbon dating, it is evident that life existed by far than the biblical calculation of 6000 years (Safina, 2009). This contravention on the previous firmly believed religion facts led some of the theologians to undertake a philosophical and metaphorical understanding of the ideals and values expressing the holy books in the Abrahamic religions. The Darwin model of evolution has acted as basis for modern day genetic research but has faced varied response by religious critics (Haught and Haught, 2009). The theory, which made the term “Darwin” synonymous with “evolution” lead to adoption of varied interpretation as well, generated different forms of impact on various religions across the globe.
Rejection or acceptance partial or full integration of the Darwinism theories and concept of religion has been observed through various religious research (Francis, 2006). Creationism believes that God created the world as evidenced in the books of Genesis and Revelation in biblical and Torah teaching as well as Quran (Turner, 2011). Darwin theory It is believed that the youthful voyage as a naturalist in the Beagle ship was critical in shaping Darwin thinking on evolution. His observation on the Galapagos islands and his famous Finches lead to his urge to conduct evolutionary research leading to one of the greatest intellectual revolution which was supported by a great deal of evidence ranging from different parts of world. As illustrated by his publication "On the Origin of Species" in 1859, Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection stated that changes in the environment caused organisms to develop inheritable behavioral and physical traits that helped them survive and reproduce (Darwin, 1859, 1871).
This inheritable change over time lead to the rich diversity of life. This is supported by geological findings of primitive species on the earth strata with the older strata containing more primitive life firm that the later. Darwin, in his theory argues that scarcity of resources reduced the chance of survival of species that were less adapted to the changing environment. The survival of an organism will depend on its ability to compete well with other organisms within the environment. The theory can sometimes be called “Survival for the Fittest” (Darwin, 1859, 1871). The organisms with poor qualities are regarded as inferior and are eliminated by natural selection gradually over time leading to extinction of the species. This leads to dominance of certain species in the population.
Over time, certain individuals will have traits suitable environment. The paleontological gaps and records gave showed that there was progressive improvement in the successive organisms they advances through various evolutionary transition that enhance the microbial life that existed in the about the 3. 5 billion years to develop in to the complex life forms of the modern day (Bowler, 2003). Moreover, experiments have shown that geographically separated organisms evolve and generically develop differently leading to the acknowledgment of natural selection concept (Tattersall, 1995). The genes adapt the changing environmental factor affecting the host and are passed to the offspring enabling them to have a better chance of survival. As Dennett notes the idea of evolution was a dangerous as revolutionary as it was in terms of realm of life, space and time perception (Dennett, 1996).
The provocative thinking by Darwin and likeminded thinkers caused extension of the Darwin vision beyond other aspects life. Thus, altering the society long held perception and fundamental as well as challenging the religion, political and scientific held views. Apart from providing a description of shared ancestry, the Darwinian Theory’s suggestion of natural selection was a dangerous discussion. The Abrahamic religions have been greatly enriched through interaction of the science and other informed viewpoint and philosophies. Human evolution is derived from science and it’s partially in confirmation of what is written in the Torah, Qur’an and biblical teachings (Ridley, 2003). Human evolution and Abrahamic religions share and relate in several confirmations such as the agreement that the origin of life is based on the single source.
More so, the two viewpoints agree on progressive development of the human being depending on the environment. However, there viewpoint on how to achieve this drastically varies with Darwinism suggesting the uncontrolled chaotic development during the evolution while most religion perceive the development of life as orderly designed by the creator. It is evident that Abraham’s religion has served the purpose of enhancing the society belief and acceptable moral and ethics. Human evolution and Abrahamic religions Christianity views Abraham as the man of faith, the perfect prototype for the followers his descendants are successively accountable for the lineage that lead to the introduction of messiah Jesus on the earth the son of God. Roman Catholics refer to Abraham as the "our father in Faith".
In Judaism, Abraham is considered the father of Judaism. He links the Jewish people as the blessed tribe on earth with the Supreme Being while in Islam he serves as the link between the successive lineages of prophets culminating in the Islamic religion founder Muhammad (Guessoum, 2016). Religion beliefs Based on the creationist belief held by most of the Abraham religion, many followers believe that the religious explanation - the creationism concept on the development of life can stand up for the scientific explanation of the origin and development of life. Creationism believes that God created the world as evidenced in the books of Genesis and Revelation in Judaism-biblical teaching as well as Quran (Schuelka, 2013). This contradicts the Darwin evolution that suggest the life development on earth are based on evolution from one organism and evolved through the natural selection mechanism over time due to the variation in the environment.
Christianity The Christian religion beliefs that man was created as superior being to all other beings. Christian believe that man was created last of all other organism on earth. The achievement of the Charles Darwin disentangle the complex relationship between religion and science. Christianity theological study agrees that there is exist gaps in the biblical description of the creation of human by Supreme Being. Furthermore, it is not clear on when exactly the creation took place as well as the mode of creation taken by God to effectively perform the creation task (Worrall, 2004). As a result, unanswered question on existence on origin of life and human development evolution. Based on evolution theory these gaps are significantly addressed in a reasonable manner.
The light engendered by the controversial topic raised by Darwin on fallacy of the religion views on the source of life not only raised the unnecessary speculation and instability in the church but also confusion touching on the religion as source of enlightenment. According to Armstrong (1912), epistemological extensions are basic to fruitful duet on dialogue between human evolution and Abrahamic religion and how relational and depend they are to on another. Radical religious leaders have numerously opposed the suggestion made by the Charles Darwin theory is dangerous to the social. They argue that the theory is socially wrong and politically misrepresenting especially the resilient statement that on “survival for the fittest”. They have refuted of the theory as baseless suggestion while some tried to eliminate the teaching and findings in their respective societies and area of control (Ridley, 2003).
The criticism of the God, who is known to be just, merciful and special in those he blesses is unwelcome in the Abraham religions. Furthermore, efforts have been made to disregard the author Charles Darwin as disillusioned man whose reputation as researcher and academic contributor is questionable (Leigh, 2013). The Darwin theory assertions that the ubiquitous nature, natural selection criteria favoring the best adapted organisms without consideration of the rational or the harm caused on the ecosystem is against the Christianity religion that promotes the principle of beneficence as well as promote peace instead of misery in the world. The tendency of Darwin to divert from the organized religion perception is considered worldly, a human weakness and incoherent with the religion and spiritual changes that most Abrahamic religions considered as ultimate steps in achieving unison with the Supreme Being (Clark and Justin, 2011).
According to Christian religion, God created human beings and as a result, they could not have evolved. Clark, Kelly and Justin (2011) states science cannot make sense without including God who is most valued by greatest philosophers of the scientific revolution and can never be disregarded. Islam There are various relation to Abraham in the holy book of Islam Quran. He is referred to as "Ibrahim Khalilullah". The perfect Muslim and friend of Allah. Muslims are known for acknowledging the science and technology advancement since the inception of the religion. Other Muslim scholars believe that Adam was involved into the natural order as maxima without any desired changes in that state (Ridley, 2003). Proponents of the evolution believe that the Islamic religion is composed on the changing religion that seek to change its interpretation with more revelation on the knowledge of the world.
Opponents reject the proof of evolution as well as initiatives to However, most Muslim seek not to question the imam and the Islamic teachings on life. They view Darwinism alternate description of origin of life as evil. Based on these roots, the perception that man is a descendant from some animals is not only abusive but unacceptable perception (Armstrong, 1912). The essence of natural science cannot be rule as it has critical ramification of the acceptable concept and belief of the Jewish religion and society. The publication on the issue Darwin theory of evolution demanded reexamination of the Judaism for potential areas of reconciliation with its disruptive scientific findings on the evolution of life on the earth. Impact of evolution theory on Judaism Contemporary thinkers in the Judaism religion have critically evaluated this relation between the evolution and the Jew religion (Peterson, and Vanarragon, 2003).
To align these two point of views, some theologians sell the argument that the Judaism acknowledges that man was created from dirt. The Torah findings show unitary with adoption of science as Torah teachings and science are considered key aspects of the mind of the God (Steinberg, 2010). The notion that the teaching of Darwinism are indeed a test of proof the religions as well as question the relationship between the God and his people. The Judaism teaching supports the impression and appreciation of diversity in nature as the uniqueness is significant in serving the ultimate goal of appeasing the ultimate Supreme Being. Does the Hindu and Buddhist belief of reincarnation work for apes to? Tactically the concept of evolution is neither rejected nor categorically accepted by the reincarnation work of the Buddhism.
However, it is believed that it evolutionary ideas was borrowed from the Hindus. Hinduism believe that in the force behind life and its manifestation of the higher god Brahman. Summary Science and religion have coexisted since time immemorial. Despite the occasional differences and conflicting world viewpoints, these two aspects of the society have collaborated enhancing progressive development in the human community. There exist extreme elements in two disciplines that view the own assertion as the absolute truth and nothing else holds. As highlighted by Dennett, the various features that serve the common good to the genome are favored by the natural selection as they are served well by the meiosis. Moreover, the lack of adequate knowledge leading to the uncertainty on various process as stipulated by Darwinism as well as the lack of intermediate stage in irreducible complexity structure highlight the work of intelligent designer (Dennett, 1996).
Despite the inadequacies and structural weakness of the Darwin theory and relating theories on evolution leading to misconception and misunderstanding of the theory, the biological anthropology supports proof of gradual evolutionary changes and has gained traction in the confronting the gaps in the sophisticated theology of the world religions (Kemp, 1999). In my opinion, working scientific techniques for the betterment of human being should be incorporated with the religious beliefs for equally balanced living standards. This will make sure that people don’t major mainly on conflicting section of evolution and religion but take advantage of the two for making their life more meaningful. Where the religion beliefs and faith doesn’t offer a convincing solution to emergent questions, surely the human evolution will try to find an appropriate one.
This highly shows the coexistence of human evolution and Abrahamic religions, which has always brought better results to those who respect the two concepts and obtain the maximum from each without mere contradiction. Religious cognition possesses an important explanatory solution to those who question evolutionary biology amongst human being. More so, the need for religion to uphold the truth signifies a high probability that some concepts of the evolutionary theory hold, as the evidence is hard to ignore. The lack of clear-cut evidence showing acceptance or total rejection of the evolution theory by the Charles indicates a possibility that both concept of religion and Darwinian Theory can coexist without necessary harming unwavering commitment to religion as well exploring full potential of scientific research.
To live in this society with no faith and belief systems is almost impossible, as they are core elements in living a purposeful life in full capacity. Moreover, based on the religious teachings, there is need for ethical consideration of other human beings, respect their capacity and belief and live with a constant and independent mindset. 2307/2013630 Barbour, Ian, 1966, Issues in Science and Religion, New York: Vantage. Bloch, M. Why religion is nothing special but is central. Philosophical transactions of The Royal Society B: biological sciences, 363(1499), 2055-2061. Bowler, P. 1859 On the Origins of Species by means of Natural Selection. London, Murray Darwin, C. 1871 The Descent of man and selection in relation to sex. London, Murray Darwin, C. , LL. Dennett, D, C. (1996) Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, Evolution and The Meaning of Life.
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