Case study of Amcor packaging company

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Management

Document 1

Most products have been able to sell so quickly because of an appealing package. However, the issues of chemicals migrating from these packages into food has gained popularity. Some of these packages have chemicals that were added to them intentionally during the production to improve the quality while others are unintentional. These chemicals can be a risk to the public. There are specific packages that contain certain types of chemicals that can migrate into food. There are a number of factors that ignite these chemicals to migrate into food including temperature and chemical properties. Table of Contents CHAPTER ONE 3 INTRODUCTION 3 1. Background of the study 3 1. Statement of the problem 5 1. Objectives of the study 6 1. Main Objective 6 1. Specific objectives 6 1. Research questions 6 1. Significance of the study 7 1. Scope of the study 7 1. Study limitations 8 1. Amcor Packaging Company Limited history 8 CHAPTER TWO 10 LITERATURE REVIEW 10 2. introduction 10 2. Packaging materials used in food industry and their health impact 11 2. Additives and chemicals used in the production of plastic packaging that can migrate into food 16 2. Some factors that make migration possible 19 2. Legislation 20 CHAPTER THREE 24 METHODOLOGY 24 3. Introduction 24 3. Research design. Data collection sources 25 3. Instruments of data collection 26 3. Population of the study 26 3. Sampling procedure 27 3. Determination of the sample size 27 3. Method of data analysis 29 CHAPTER FOUR 29 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 29 4. Introduction 29 CHAPTER FIVE 35 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 35 5. Discussion 35 5. Conclusion 36 5. Recommendation 37 References 38 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. Background of the study The role of food packaging has become very important in today’s business world. Packaging is not just a wrap to cover foods but a component used to sell the brand of the commodity.

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The role has changed because of the changes in the lifestyle of the consumers. The type of packaging used by a company has today become their selling proposition. It can attract consumers and ignite them to do impulse buying. Packaging not only keeps food safe from contamination and retains the nutritional value of the food (Claudio, 2012). To enhance the performance of packaging, several additives are being added. However, the risks associated with these packages cannot be overlooked. An example of the additives added to improve packaging include antioxidants, stabilizers, lubricants, anti-blocking and anti-static agents. The use of packages has increased due to new development in plastics including the urge to minimize the weight of metal and glass containers (Lau, 2000). Recently, there has been a heated debate about the safety of the packaging used in foods.

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Australia has state and territory legislative requirements whose aim is to keep food safe and suitable for consumptions an example is the Food Acts. The Food Acts has some provisions guiding the use of packaging. For example, it is an offence for a company to sell food packaging that is unsafe or which would make food unsafe for consumption. There is also the Australia New Zealand Food Standards code which lays out the packaging contaminants that are allowed and the maximum amount allowed. The movement of these chemical into the food from the package is affected by multiple factors. The risks associated to chemical migration from the package to the food can have serious consequences on consumers and cannot be ignored. The sue of companies has become very useful to companies today.

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Not forgetting the use of it a promotional tool to attract customers. The package used on a product alone can inspire a customer to but the product. The high rate of chemical use in these packaging forces one to ask whether the contaminants used are of the right amount as required by the Australian Food Act or have potential to cause harm. Are there any potential public health risks associated with the movement of chemical compounds from the packages to the food? 2. Is the current regulatory regime in Australia clear and certain for Amcor to adequately manage any risks that may arise from the movement of chemicals from the package to the food? 3. Is there any need for changes in the regime? 4. How does Amcor packaging company manage the risks associated with chemical migration from the packaging to the food? 5.

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Are there any potential risks to consumers in regard to the current risk management model at Amcor packaging? 1. The focus of the study will be on Amcor packaging company. The current risk mitigation strategies of Australia will be assessed to find out whether they adequately address all the possible risks associated with food packaging contamination. The researcher will make use of the staff of Amcor packaging to find out the chemical contaminants used in packages and mitigating strategies they have put in place. Study limitations One disadvantage of the study is that some staff and employees were that the employees and staff were uncooperative. The time for conducting the study was also limited. A young mason who came to Australia together with his bride to unleash the opportunities of the new land are the genesis of what is known as the Amcor Packaging Company.

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The young man was from Yorkshire and he came in 1860s. He started the first paper mill in Australia in Melbourne at the banks of River Yarra (Amcor, n. d). The company was popularly known as the Australian Paper Manufacturers. Above everything, they produce packaging whose cost is affordable to their customers. They are also very keen when it comes to environment perseverations. Their presence is increasing being felt in emerging markets. They are establishing themselves more and more in the emerging markets whose potential for growth is very high. It is worth noting that Amcor Packaging Company produced the flexible and rigid packaging. The non-intentional contaminants are those that are present during production, processing, packaging of food and its storage. The issue of food contamination is not only a problem in developing countries but the any company in the entire world that sells food that that is prepared and ready to eat.

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Such foods are available in the streets push carts, bicycles, semi mobile, bus terminal and many other selling points. In India for example, packaged foods are consumed by more than three million people. The reason is that such foods are sold at affordable prices to the middle and low income group. It is worth noting that there is not food contact materials that is inert completely. Therefore, the chemical components in them have great chances of migrating into food. Packaging materials like paper, ceramics, glass, plastics, metals, rubber and paper can have the potential to emit chemical components when they come into contact with certain food types. Packaging materials used in food industry and their health impact Metals Metals are often used as packaging materials usually through the metals cans. These cans are made from steel which has a layer of tin as coating, other cans are don’t have tin meaning that they are made of steel which is coated with chromium oxides and others are made of aluminum.

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These components have been found to potentially cause no harm to food because they are exist naturally in many foods. However, the substances of concern in glass packaging come from glazes and printing inks. Few glass bottles which are used for storage of beverages may contain lead. Lead exists as a contaminant of food. Prolonged intake or exposure to lead in high levels can lead to vomiting, kidney damage, poisoning and liver damage (Rupabate, 2015). These plastics release BPA which is a chemical many experts have found to cause serious health problems. ii) PVC PVC is used in the making of seals for screw-cap jars (Oakenfull, 2014). It also used to make cling wraps and bottles. When it is on its own, PVC is very had and rigid. Chemicals like plasticisers are added to make it flexible and soft The rate of people suffering from throat ailments, intestinal cancer, liver dysfunction, and infertility are increasing at a rate that is alarming.

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This reaction makes it sticky and to have holes. There is a very high likelihood of chemical migration taking place. In addition, when foods are kept in the freezer using the Ziploc bags and later thawing then can ignite chemical migration into the food. That is why foods packed in plastic bags need to be avoided. There is also high usage of Styrofoam cups especially in coffee shops and restaurants. When the acidic foods like tomato paste, lemon juice or other spices come into contact with the aluminum foil, they erode it which leads to small amounts of it migrating to the food. Small amounts of aluminum equivalent to 1 mg/kg can be extracted from the body easily. Unfortunately, most people take more than the minimum amount which is harmful to the body.

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Newspaper Recycled newspaper which are used for food packaging can cause very high and unacceptable levels of minerals to migrate into food. Benzidine used for dye extraction is carcinogenic. The impact is that it has been found to interfere with the reproductive system of women (Rupabate, 2015). Additives and chemicals used in the production of plastic packaging that can migrate into food Bisphenol A (BPA) This compound can be released quickly. Because many people take small amounts daily, the level of the compound is high. The levels of BPA in the body are way below the daily limit that is required by most regulatory authorities. However, even though this limit has been allowed, scientists in 1980s expressed concerns (FDA, 2012). In the US, the phthalates are not permitted in materials used for food packaging.

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Use of DEHP in the making of toys. The use of DNOP and DINP which are used in toys as plasticisers were also restricted from use (Oakenfull, 2014). An example of these toys and articles are the teething rings and dummies which are put in the mouth of children. The EU has set standards or limits for phthalates in food. Even though there may lack evidence about the dangers of Epoxidised Soybean Oil (ESBO), a committee appointed by the European Union indicated that, “In the absence of adequate analytical and toxicological data on ESBO derivatives, no advice can yet be given on the significance for health of such derivatives in foods. ” Plasticizers These components have low molecular weight that makes it possible for the to migrate into food from the packaging materials.

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This happens especially in the case of wrapped foods which makes plasticizers indirect food additives. This component is popularly used in PVC and PVA. The study of migration is done using food stimulants. The annual exposure on the other hand was found to be 20. mg. This level of exposure has been found to have serious impact to the body of humans. For instance, it causes irritation to the organs of human body and skin as well. It also was found to lead to neurological disorders. An example of such plastics is polyolefins which is vulnerable to the ultraviolet rays of the sun. they are also vulnerable to oxygen, heat, moisture. A test was done to test the migration of Tinuvin P from the PET bottles. The migration however was facilitated by some factors.

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For instance, the presence of fats. Legislation Some decades ago the issue of consumer protection from any possible food toxicity gained popularity among the regulating bodies. The issue of consumer protection from the impact of migrating compound from packages into food has become of concern. Most countries have their own ways to determine the presence of such compounds and the specification of migration limit. European Legislation The European Legislation Directive on migration of chemicals into food is based on two principles. The first principle is the inertness of the material that is in contact with food. The DFA is in charge to object that a particular substance is not safe within a period of 120 days. If not, the FDA issues a letter of no objection after which the company dealing with the substance is able to market it.

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If FDA does not respond, then the company can go ahead and market the substance after 120 days are over. A Food Contact Material substance is subject for clearance from authorization by FDA if it existed before 1958. Substances that existed before 1958 are taken as grandfather into the regulation and hence can’t be revoked by the regulation. standards. Information about on food contact substances is on standard 1. however, it does not give information on the substances that are allowed in the production of food packages. The regulation of food substances depends on the function of the substance that is in contact with food. The regulatory body differentiates between the food additives, package and processing aid. Therefore, any manufacturing must ake sure that the packages used in food do not lead to exceed the allowed levels of metals, non-metals and natural toxicant levels.

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Canada There are generally two bodies in Canada that deal with the issues of food packaging. These are the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Health Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is the agency whose duty if to foresee policy enforcement. It is also responsible for inspecting the standards of food. The same law gives the guidelines for food standards and food compounds. This law is divided into the following sections: A. This gives the requirement for packaging containers including their materials. It also gives restrictions. B. The survey method was seen as appropriate for this study. This chapter has the following sections; research design, sources of data, the instruments used for data collection, study population, sampling procedure, sample size and data analysis methods. Research design. The art of using survey as a research method means that the study sample will be asked questions to gain information about the population of study.

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It means that a set of questions will be prepared on different subjects which will be presented to the respondents. The sampling method that was sued was simple random sampling. Data collection sources The researcher made used of two main sources of data a) Primary data The primary data was collected by the use of the questionnaires that were given to the chosen sample. The main tool used to collect primary data is the questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to the potential respondents through two ways. The first one is that, the researcher had the questionnaires sent to the respondents who would not be available in person through email. iv) The researcher was able to gather information even from the members who would not be available in person to answer the questions (Strauss & Corbin, 1990).

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Population of the study The total number of the population of the study was 1, 500 staff and managers from Amcor Packaging company. Table 3. Staff and managers selected to take part Name of the participants Number Staff 700 managers 800 Total 1,500 3. Sampling procedure The study used simple random sampling procedure. They are represented by “strongly disagree” or “disagree”. Table 4. Questionnaire Respondents Given Answered Not answered %answered Staff 149 149 0 47 Managers 167 167 0 53 total 316 316 0 100 The information shows that the number of questionnaires administered to the staff at Amcor Packaging Company is 149 which were all returned. The number of questionnaires administered to the managers was 167 which were all returned again. Table 4. Table 4. Need for change in the current Australian regime Rating Frequency Percentage Strongly agree 150 47 Agree 50 16 Strongly disagree 50 16 Disagree 66 21 Total 316 100 The above table indicates that150(47%) of the respondents in the survey strongly agree that there is need for change in the current regime in Australia, 50(16%) agree, 50(16%) strongly disagree while 66(21%) disagree with the statement.

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Table 4. Amcor packaging has a safety program that manages risks associated with chemical migration from package into food very well Rating Frequency Percentage Strongly agree 85 27 Agree 74 24 Strongly disagree 80 25 Disagree 77 24 Total 316 100 From the above table, 85(27%) of the respondents strongly agree that Amcor packaging has a safety program that manages the risks associated with chemical migration into food from the package very well, 74(24) agree, 80(25%) strongly disagree while 77(24%) disagree. Table 4. Some of the contaminants that have been found to be hazardous to the well-being of the consumers are not listed in FSANZ. Therefore, the conclusion is that there is concern about the current regime. That FSANZ current requirements in the Code do not help manufacturers to mitigate the risks associated chemical migration into food from packages. FSANZ is however working hard to find out the safety and consumer risks associated with chemical migration into food.

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They are infact requesting the public to give information on any risks that is unmanaged. The minimum amount of these contaminants should also be indicated. Regulatory bodies need to impose strict measures on the use of these chemicals compunds in packages including the use of additives to avoid risking the lives of the consumers. Where there is need, all the bodies in the world need to revise their approach on packaging requirements. Any person or company/manufacturer who violates the regulation on packaging, should have be dealt with. This will reduce the misuse of these hazardous chemicals/substances in the production of packages beyond levels that are harmful to the health of human beings. online] Available at: www. amcor. com/about-us/company/our-history. Ardic, M. Ibrahim, H. Rasco, B. Migration of chemical compounds from packaging polymers during microwave, conventional heat treatment, and storage.

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Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(5), pp 523-545. Claudio, L. Our Food: Packaging and public health. pp. Kurunthachalam, S. Possible adverse implications of chemical migration from food pack materials in India. Hydrology: Current Research, 4(156). Lau, O. Scheringer, M. Porta, M. Food packaging and migration of food contact materials: will epidemiologists rise to the neotoxic challenge? Epidemiology and Community Health. Available at: https://www. researchgate. com. au/food-and-drink/food-warnings-and safety/plastic/articles/plastics-and-food Oakenfull, D. The danger of plasticisers. Online] Choice. Available at: https://www. thehealthsite. com/diseases-conditions/food-packaging materials-that-can-be-harmful-for-your-health-sh214/ Science Daily, (2014). Food packaging chemicals may be harmful to human health over long term. British Medical Journal. Available at: https://www. Journal of Chromatography,882(1-2), pp. Olakunari, O. Successful Research, theory and practice. Enugu: Computer Edge Publisher. Osuala, E.

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