Challenges and influences of interface management in engineering procurement construction projects
For instance, in the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport (TSAIA) and the Project Dempsey, there was weather climate condition, governmental and environmental regulations that made it more complicated. Besides, there were varying designs during the different phases of the project which made collaboration harder and resulted in a derailment on completion. Despite the significances culminating from the effectiveness of interface management in EPC projects delivery and definition of scope, it has been adopted and implemented variably in different construction companies. Therefore, it is essential to identify such constraints in interface management in various projects through the identification of crucial interface points, aligning with the project schedule, and integrating interface and performance management in projects. The main objectives of this research paper are to identify factors influencing interfaces management, evaluate the challenges of interface management, and recommend suitable solutions to counter interface management challenges.
However, the project was constraint by some challenges including time and resource constraints, different perception and implementation of interface management in organizations. In summary, the finding of the research was to be of fundamental importance in facilitating interface management in EPC project by identifying challenges and influences of interface management while recommending suitable solutions to such shortcomings. ACKNOWLEDGMENT First. I recognize the tireless efforts from my direct supervisor for his mentorship, guidance, positive encouragement that has led to the completion of my studies. This work would not have been complete without your unwavering support and tireless efforts that you have provided since the start of this master degree program. Special thanks to my parents for the guidance and motivation they offered throughout my carrier.
I appreciate you all. TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT II ACKNOWLEDGMENT IV LIST OF FIGURES IX LIST OF TABLES X LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS XI CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 1. 1 Chapter Introduction 1 1. 2 Background 1 1. 5 Overview of Interface Management 21 2. 1 Causes for Poor Interface Management 23 2. 2 Benefits of implementing Interface Management 24 2. 6 Overview of Configuration Management 25 2. 7 Overview of Risk Management 27 2. 2 Narrative Enquiry 37 3. 7 Research Contribution 38 3. 8 Chapter summary 39 CHAPTER FOUR: CASE STUDY ON TED STEVENS ANCHORAGE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 40 4. 1 Introduction 40 4. 2 Case Description 40 4. 6 Interface Management 59 5. 8 Chapter summary 60 CHAPTER 6: DATA AND LITERATURE ANALYSIS 61 6. 1 Chapter Introduction 61 6. 2 Case study analysis 61 6. 3 Data Analysis 64 6. 77 REFERENCES 78 APPENDICES 87 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. 1 AB Group structure 1 Figure 2. 1 Project Life Cycle and Designers Level of Influence (Hassan, 1997) 14 Figure 2. 3: Project phases (Nguyen, 2014) 15 Figure 2. 4: The Systems Engineering Process (XX) 19 Figure 2. 66 Figure 6. 2:Source Research Data, 2018. 67 Figure 6.
3:Source Research Data, 2018. 68 LIST OF TABLES Table 6. 6 million square metre of air-conditioned area, ABC operates one of the world’s most efficient district cooling network and has the highest Gross Floor Area (GFA) served per km of the pipeline (Figure xx: Serving 1. 6 million square metre GFA in MB). Due to this remarkable achievement, ABC was featured as one of the top engineering feats by the XXX (IES) in 2016. Besides providing cooling comfort to the district, the condensing unit recovers the waste heat and supplies it to XXX (MBS) for all of its hot water usages. ABC district energy system currently has two plants. This project provided him with the opportunity to be involved in project management and explore experiences of the whole project life cycle.
Period to this project, be entirely responsible for developing project plans, assist project implementation, project coordination (internal and external interfaces), site supervision and project execution. Currently, he is part of the ABC project team working on its first chiller plant project in Chaotianmeng, Chongqing, China. For this project, he was assigned as a team leader of the Testing and Commissioning (T&C) division, assist with site supervision and follow up with chilled water and hot water system startup. Typically, his responsibilities included establishing interface management, commissioning management, effective communication and assist in coordination with developer, suppliers, and contractors during the project’s T&C life cycle. , 2007, p. Similar concerns are also present in the construction industry because of failure to take into consideration the interfaces between multiple elements of the project.
Accordingly, conflicts arise within the life cycle of the project leading to unnecessary failures in different phases that could otherwise be avoided. Various illustrations of failed projects that result from integration issues exist. Interestingly, it is observed that 20% of the entire project cost is associated with interface management issues. He observed that there was a need for integrating and fully optimizing the multidisciplinary designs in the engineering fields of Electrical and Civil. Furthermore, he stated that the most significant grounds for failures in projects are the insufficient communication and exchange of information between multiple contractors. In another case is the Betuweroute, a 160 km long freight railway from the Maasvlakte near Rotterdam to the German border that was concluded in 2007. To acquire the lowest price for each segment of the project, it was subcontracted to multiple local contracts.
Yet, all various parties involved amplified the demand for synchronization and interface management. Numerous research methods have been recommended including factor analysis by Tatikonda and Rosenthal (2000, pp 74-87), workshops with industry practitioners (Maylor et al. 2008, p. 15), and according to Remington et al. (2009), surveys by means of interviews. In most of these recommended approaches, factors and dimensions of complexity were candidly ascertained and reviewed by scholarly researchers’ views and assessments. i. To identify the factors related to influencing interface management in EPC projects. ii. To evaluate the challenges and impact of interface management across the EPC project life cycle. iii. The requirement to demand particular, comprehensive requests that are incapable of further being broken down implies that the individual making a claim must give careful thought to the requested information detail and to the timing on when the information has been delivered.
Furthermore, both parties are required to sign a formal agreement and hold a dialogue concerning the data and its conveyance so that the deal can be reached. If the owner demands too much too soon, it is unlikely that an agreement will be achieved with the contractor. Observably, the result of this process of communication is formal interface agreements. Upholding and maintaining open communication between various project teams early in the life cycle of the project is crucial in fostering excellence in implementation and performance. Relatedly, these problems require urgent attention and need to be dealt with immediately through appropriate management, collaboration, and communication among the stakeholders (Sosa, Eppinger, & Rowles, 2007c, p 189). Likewise, the adversative consequences of the challenges in interface management among various stakeholders before the completion of EPC projects is not clear.
For that reason, it is indispensable to meticulously classify the interface concerns among diverse participants and precisely scrutinize their impact on the projects to avoid unnecessary limitations that affect project performance. For the benefit of efficaciously fuse theory and practice, this paper seeks to ascertain the main challenges faced in the interface management process and evaluate their impacts across diverse EPC projects. In so doing, the knowledge acquired in this study will help in bridging the information gap to help come up with productive solutions in the interface management process and enhance performance in project delivery. Other management processes essential in EPC projects that are related to interface management such as configuration management, risk management, and communication management have been surveyed and outlined.
In the third chapter, the methodology steering the research has been highlighted. The use of action research, interviews and case studies have been put into consideration including the sources of data that guided the research. To boot, the research approach and limitations are expressed In the fourth and fifth chapter, the respective first and second case studies are discussed consecutively. The backgrounds of the project and relevant reflections on these cases are noted down. However, there have been little work detailing the challenges and influences of interface management. The challenges and influences of interface management on EPC projects have not been clarified in most of the previous research work. The chapter sought to shade light by mainly reviewing on the diverse research work that has been previously done by different scholars relating to Engineering Procurement Construction projects.
It makes a critical analysis of the essential findings of various research work and uses the information as a backbone upon which this study is founded to identify the research gap for the study. 2 Definition of Engineering Procurement Construction. For instance, the adoption of electronic product and process management systems, the execution and integration of megaprojects is enhanced through formalization and automation of work processes, ease documentation and linking distant project stakeholders via server and internet systems. Besides, the adoption of the IMS enhances the identification of the critical shareholders in the project by clearly highlighting their roles and responsibilities and determining their complex relationships in their operation networks (Shokri et al. The management of engineering and construction interface across different phases in the design and execution of projects is a key factor to the project success.
Interface management implementation is apposite at any stage of the EPC project life cycle after the concept stage. Project stakeholders will realize lessening returns and possibly marginal benefits if the team does not implement interface management until the later stages. The interface management entails recognition of tool, processes, and actions necessary to the accomplishment of the project hence affects the quantitative approach to project management and design. This is enhanced through the prompt and consistent dispensation of important information to ensure all members are up to date and well equipped throughout the project life cycle phase. Interface management enhances information sharing regarding interfaced deliverables hence creating an overall impact of project deliverables. Interface management is vital in solving interface loophole as it facilitates communication that helps reflect and record interface challenges and influences.
Therefore, it facilitates the identification and definition of the scope of a project as well as shareholders roles and responsibilities. Conversely, it has become a struggle to monitor interface states and owners continue to face this struggle. Interfaces are primarily regarded to be the connections between various elements within the project, the scope, and the stakeholders (Maylor et al. Therefore, insufficient management of these interfaces lead to inadequacies concerning time, cost, and quality during project implementation and by extension, failures after the project have been handed over to the owner. Hence, it is highly critical to employ systematic interface management that will handle interfaces efficiently and enhance project performance (Sosa, Eppinger, & Rowles, 2007, p 133). According to Caglar (2007), interface management entails typically formal communication and collaboration between the groups involved.
In both definitions, it is evident that systems engineering embodies the whole project life from needs identification to termination of the system. It deals with technical tasks like design, including project activities such as configuration management and risk management and converts needs and requirements into an array of system product and descriptions of processes, produce data for key decision makers, and offers input appropriate for the following developmental level. Therefore, systems engineering presents a methodical approach and implements that directly sustain project management. The systems engineering process comprises of four steps that occur sequentially (Carrillo, 2005, p. Figure 2. System analysis and control allows for evaluation of outputs of the other tasks by performing independent studies to identify what approaches are more efficient in the implementation process.
In this vein, it directs what should be implemented and when. The analysis that assists in risk management, data management, and configuration management is done in systems analysis and control. The analysis process delivers the findings of all assessments made, presents strategies measured and rejected, and the justifications used to make all deductions. Moreover, the preferred approaches are recorded together with the methodology applied for selection (Carrillo, 2005, p. Additionally, this framework should be useful in establishing effective communication and cooperation or partnership between contractors and their team members (Carrillo & Chinowsky, 2006, p. According to Widerman (2002) interface management can be defined as either the “management of communication, coordination, and responsibility across a common boundary between two organizations, phases, or physical entities which are interdependent” or the management of issues that arise “among people, departments, and disciplines rather than within the project team itself.
” EPC projects often face multiple challenges. For instance, the pressure on time as a result of coinciding engineering design, equipment procurement, and physical construction may result in uncertainty and intricacy in overseeing the various interfaces between several interrelating stakeholders. In the context of project management, an interface can be described as the agreement between organizations that are interdependent and interact on achieving their goals through collaboration. Most studies that have tackled interface problems have considered one or more interface forms or features and concentrated on interfaces between two parties of project participants like owners and contractors, owners and designers, and contractors and subcontractors, among others. Studies have also shown that some EPC projects have taken advantage of web-based interface management. Notably, this involves using web technology to create and enhance interface management activities at the project’s design and construction stages.
Nitithamyong and Skibniewski (2004, p. 491) proposed a network-based interface management model that utilizes portals and web-based systems. The fifth phase connects interfaces with the relevant drawings while the sixth one monitors DIAs. 1 Causes for Poor Interface Management Based on a study done by Chen and Beliveau (2008, p. 432) on the multi-perspective model to investigate the reason factors for interface issues, it is evident that implementation of interface management at the initial phases of EPC projects leads to better performance regarding the scope of the project and time. Unfortunately, not all approaches to interface management are successful. In this regard, researchers such as Wang et al. Moreover, the advantages include better synchronization between project parties, facilitated communication and collaboration of stakeholders, and improved project performance and quality through the provision of a framework that necessitates a better understanding of interdependent requirements.
Furthermore, interface management also enables maintenance of the project within the stipulated time, additional cost reduction, improved project safety, and a reduction in conflicts. 6 Overview of Configuration Management Configuration, according to Pathirage et al. (2007, p. 115), is the collection or group of practical and physical features of a final result or end product outlined in the plan and accomplished after implementation of those plans. , 2004, p155). The third and fourth activities are configuration control and configuration status accounting respectively. Configuration control involves safeguarding configuration items to ensure that any changes that occur get recorded. On the other hand, configuration status accounting keeps track of the current situation of a configuration and provides traceability of configuration items all through their advancement and functioning (Chan et al.
, 2004, p. Configuration management is fundamental to a project for a variety of reasons. First, through this process, the order in the project life cycle is maintained thus confusion is minimized. Also, activities necessary for the sustenance of integrity of the deliverables are organized. Thirdly, configuration management guarantees the absolute configuration of products, and fourth, legal liability is limited since all actions within the project life cycle are documented. Additionally, project costs are minimized, compliance with standards enhanced, and consistency conformity to requirements is supported (Chattopadhyay & Mo, 2010, p. 33), the classification can be under internal, external, and project risks. Internal risks are those that arise from within the project such as resource risk and risks in the construction site; external threats are those that derive from external sources such as risks regarding weather, political and economic status; and project risks revolve around the performance of the project on cost, quality, and so forth.
On research performed by Wang et al. (2016) on the connection between risk management, partnering, and contractor competence, risks are often grouped into various categories depending on several factors. Through critical analysis or available literature, multiple classifications of threats in EPC projects were identified. risk handling and response management, and iv. risk monitoring. As the first step, risk identification involves pinpointing the source of risk, its nature, and related uncertainties. Al-Bahar and Crandall (1990, p. 533), describe this phase as “the process of systematically and continuously identifying, categorizing, and assessing the initial signs of risks associated with the project. 115): Risk handling and response management is the phase of decision-making. Costs, benefits, and risks are substituted to ascertain the risk acceptability level. This stage aims to eradicate the risk fully or to moderate the detrimental consequences of risk.
The five kinds of risk responses that are largely applied include risk avoidance, risk mitigation, risk transfer, insurance, and accept (Zavadskas et al. , 2010, p. 30) developed a conceptual model in order to boost the understanding between partnering, organizational capability, managing risk and project performance in EPC projects, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. 8:Conceptual model for delivering international EPC projects 2. 8 Overview of Commissioning Management It is estimated that commissioning a facility resulting from an EPC project improves performance by 8% to 30%. According to ASHRAE 2005, commissioning is a process that focuses on delivering a quality project, as well as documentation and verification of the project. For instance, owners of a public facility such as a university library look for higher reliability and little maintenance on performance throughout the facility’s life cycle.
Some of the main influences seeking commissioning management are the need for a well-performing entity, efficiency on energy, rating systems on performance, compliance of commissioning codes, low costs of facility’s maintenance, and internal sustainability programs (Carrillo & Chinowsky, 2006, pp. 9 Chapter Summary This research has reviewed the relevant studies done on Engineering procurement construction projects based on systems engineering, interface management, configuration management, risk management, and commissioning management. In systems engineering, the definitions and the initial steps essential to the EPC project process were presented. Additionally, interface management has been covered to emphasize the importance of alignment and coordination between different interfaces in the EPC projects. The attention has been on issues like lack of collaboration between stakeholders and their relationship in the risk management process, interface management based on trust as applicable to international EPC projects, and general causes for the issues affecting interface management based on multi-perspective approach.
Too much prominence has been laid on international engineering procurement construction projects and hence lots of concentration centered around the application of interface management in multiple projects including other fields besides EPC. Therefore, this leaves room for more research on the challenges and influences of interface management in this project both locally, and internationally CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Chapter introduction This chapter discusses the research design, collection of data, and the validation of the methods selected. Based on the research gap identified in the literature review, the chapter help in providing insight and a brief discussion of the research objectives through case studies related to Engineering Procurement Constructions (EPC). However, the integration and alignment between stakeholders and design teams have not been critically addressed.
Besides, the failure to pay attention to the entirety of the EPC project through interface management has not been critically considered. Their influences including design duplication, delays, and rework need to be assessed via interface management. For instance, financial effects of various mega projects such as Airbus’s A380 superjumbo had critical implications due to poor interface management and integration (Sosa, Eppinger, and Rowles, 2007, p. 133), there lacks comprehensive research that addresses challenges and factors influence interface management in EPC projects. A case study research typically entails the in-depth analysis of interface management including its challenges and influences in EPC projects bound by unifying factors. This method will be critical as it focuses on project running and conduction toward the accomplishment of intended outcomes.
Relevant data is collected from several case study projects where formal or informal interface management is inculcated. A sample of two (2) projects was targeted to provide critical and useful data for further analysis. 4 Data Collection Methodology The author adopted the use of narrative analysis and the use of questionnaires as the main approaches to collect data. The primary data collection was therefore supplemented with the extraction and sourcing of data from websites. 6 Data Collection Tools For the purpose of data collection, the questionnaires established by the author where the pilot test was conducted to enhance the effectiveness of the process. A pilot test was important to the identification of gaps in the data collection tool for further revision. The questionnaire was purposely fashioned to establish the EPC project characteristics as posited by the adoption of the interface management.
Besides, the extraction of relevant data from secondary sources supplemented data collected. ” (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000). The conceptual framework of this research on the narrative analysis is dimensional enquires, temporality and place on interface management in EPC projects. Temporality enhances the understanding of transition in EPC projects in the past, present, and future with relation to interface management. On the other hand, place entails the specific physical boundaries where the case study research enquiry took place. This is important as the company or project profiling will help to identify and address the research objectives. Therefore, this study will help establish significant challenges and effects that affect the interface management application in the EPC projects hence giving the audience a comprehensive analysis of those challenges.
Besides, the author seeks to establish the best ways to solve the existing challenges and influence in interface management hence giving insight critical in the establishment of the efficient and effective project life cycle management in EPC. Additionally, the holistic analysis and understanding of this research add to the existing studies by establishing the challenges and influences of interface management in the EPC projects. The analyses of the best ways to solve such shortcoming have critically been addressed thus contributing to the literature on EPC projects. Therefore, the understanding of the challenges and influence dimension of interface management in EPC project significantly influence risk mitigation hence the study improves the understanding of establishment, development, and evaluation of the interface management in the EPC projects.
The chapter begins by describing the case study followed by the organization of the research project. Besides, the chapter further examines interface management in practice including the challenges and influences during the project after evaluation of the case study. The chapter further addresses the types of interface that are prevalent in the project while addressing the factors that causes integration issues between different players in the project. 2 Case Description For this research paper, Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport (TSAIA) is used as the case study. The project goal was to facilitate the long-term development of the airport. The structural engineer for the project was Coffman Engineers who facilitated the construction and expansion of the concourses. Grafton Technologies promoted the remote sensing techniques (satellite and air surveillance) during the expansion and update.
The TSAIA project was divided into four phases which constituted the scope of the contracts necessary to facilitate the expansion objective of the airport. The various contractors were of significance to the success of the project due to: i. The expertise depicted by the project contractors was necessary for the project’s stringent performance requirements. The designing, documentation, and evaluation of the project components and sub-systems for construction followed the following steps: i. Specification: this involves data collection, assumptions, requirements and prerequisites and organization of the relevant data for the project implementation. ii. Generation of Solutions: this involves the designing and visualization of the project. iii. For instance, the method is vital and provides flexibility in project architecture while the project participants continue to work, possible changes can be inculcated to the creation of reports for further insight.
The technique is further limited by the fact that the flexibility is dependent on the familiarity of the software and the project (Murphy, 2002). Besides, RMT is a constraint to textual information thus coupling of the graphical figure is not possible hence constraining drawing as an important source of communication in the construction industry. In the TSAIA, the system of RMT technique facilitated by various methods including the Quick Response (QR) Codes, web-based comment database, social media, etc. to enhance the integration of the public involvement program. The identification of the interface needs and the potential risks was done in each phase of the projects during the interface meeting. The project entailed four (4) phases which were (Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, 2014): i.
Phase 1: Minimization of development which involved the construction of ground run-up enclosure, extending taxiways, widen runway, and expand the North and South Airparks. ii. Phase 2: Optimize ANC which entailed the modification of the preferential runway use program, reconsider public parking facilities, constructing the North Airpark roadway, extend Taxiway, and South Terminal expansion. The phases of the project were in charged by different team hence the organization was not sufficient for ensuring the entire project life cycle without any interface gap issues. The designing phase posited their interface that did not comply with the requirements of the whole projects. In this situation, the organization used varying software to identify and document their interfaces for internal organization. Therefore, the interface management entailed the introduction to the types of interfaces and the involved disciplines and role descriptions.
Moreover, the PB organized the project and involving the project briefs and specifications. The expansion project was undertaken while considering the environmental factors including wildlife protection, quality of air, and handling of waste as well as noise sensitive abatement. Additionally, the weather condition in the region was a major influence in the expansion of the airport as it complicated its operations. The snowy condition has previously halted the functioning of the airport. This influence further posited a major challenge in defining the interface management policies that otherwise would have facilitated the recognition of the interface evolution. 6 Reflection The case study project entailed the expansion of TSAIA as necessitated by the need for larger capacity due to increased customer needs. Therefore, the implementation of the project was faced with various challenges and constraints that otherwise affected the interface management hence the progress and performance of the project.
Subsequently, it was critical to facilitate interface management and integration during the project life cycle. The case study on TSAIA as articulated in the discussion above forms a great basis for understanding the challenges and influence of interface management in EPC projects. The project as depicted had various challenges including communication and delays which critically contribute to the success of this study. The complexity of the project including many stakeholders and contractor further highlights the importance of integration and management of interfaces within projects. The project is a mixed development encompassing of a shopping mall, luxury residences, Grade A offices, serviced residence, and a hotel, with a total construction area of 1,134,264 m2. RXXX is the largest ever China investment made by any SGXX company, with a total development cost estimated at RMB 21 billion.
Supported by strong economic growth and demand for business and trades in Chongqing, RXXX is expected to be a successful development with high occupancy rates. Besides, the project cost was higher than the original estimated final budget, and delay, which resulted due to workforce and construction challenges. The cost overruns were revealed by the main contractor, and it was estimated to cost twice as much as projected. In addition, SPXX has established a strong operations track record by attaining a 100 percent scorecard in three key areas of performance in safety, reliability, and quality of supply in 2013. To that end, SPXX can tap on regional and global opportunities to enter and establish new markets, through leveraging its capabilities and track record in developing and operating district cooling system.
Given that air-conditioning service is an essential support service for commercial and office buildings, SPXX intends to partner real estate developers to offer waterside services to their projects. (CLXX) is one of Asia’s largest real estate companies which focuses markets in, China, Australia, Europe and other parts of Asia. CLXX’s real estate portfolio entails homes, offices, serviced residences and shopping malls. The second part of the project execution plan involves procurement of Principal Supply Equipment (PSE) for the chiller plants for installation by the MEP contractors. The PSE of chiller plants comprises a total of six equipment packages, and they form the core system components of a chiller plant. The original design requirement is to provide an initial installed capacity of 10,500 refrigerant ton (RT) cooling load that can meet the customer’s requirements For this project, the MEP contractor will be responsible for the effectiveness and efficiency of the project execution and performance.
This also entails that they will be obliged to facilitate interface management to enhance the coordination of the interfaces and activities within China governmental authorities, the CLXX’s M&E contractors, owner (SPXX), principal equipment suppliers, and the primary work scope. Each regulatory authority facilitates the integration and drafting of various activities, for example, the electrical system procurement, SPXX would be awarding electrical installation contracts to Chongqing Electricity Bureau’s appointed contractors namely, Company A (for installation), Company B (for site supervision) and Company C (for design approval). Besides, the challenges faced in this project such as rough weather climate condition, local cultures, construction risk, environmental requirement, industrial practices, policies, and standards. Additionally, it involved with several government authorities for effectiveness.
Therefore, it is crucial the aspects of interface integration between the distinct phases of the project be enhanced to counter the problematic and constraint processes. The geographical constraints were great of great consideration that had significant implications for the interface management (Hussain, 2018). Based on the case study, the planning of the project did not as projected. The quality and timing of the project had significant implications on the interface management as indicated by the audit report that otherwise should have been facilitated by better communication and definition of work. Additionally, the scope of work identification was to be further promoted as more technology due to its uniqueness and complexity. Therefore, for efficient and successful project delivery requires in-depth preparation and accurate execution during project phases of engineering design, construction, commissioning and start-up through enhanced interface management in such an EPC project.
4 Critical issues The construction of the Project Dempsey had different issues that were determined at the end through the plan unable to deliver as expected during subsequent testing and commissioning due to delays and cost overrun. The project was delayed severally due to the constraint situation and what can be described as “poor feasibility study”. This heightened the difficulty of communication between the involved stakeholders hence interface management constraint. To facilitate communication and coordination, the project was distributed into phases with different stakeholder or coordinator involved. • As the project was complex, the contractors and stakeholders in charge of the East and West chilled water plant, the hot water, and chilled water intake stations had to identify their project phase needs including the materials and information to share to facilitate interconnectedness and transfer of critical information hence the effectiveness of interface management.
Basing on the expansiveness of the project phases can be distributed into various teams both external and external. For example, the involved government authorities are external while the contractors and engineers are internal stakeholders (Zhao, 2018). c. Inappropriate skill levels of the workers and materials used to carry out industry piping specifications work iv. Besides, there was a cost overrun and delays due to poor workmanship, poor scheduling, and feasibility study. Additionally, the project interface management was vexed by the lack of ample communication about the project between the government and the financers. By way of illustration, poor workmanship, we should identify the more critical issues from the less critical and set a reasonable time for the contractor to rectify. Conducting cause and effect analysis to enhance the identification of the required overtime, costs, and workforce while responding to potential risks, posibble causes of failure and uncertainties.
The project contractor must consider involving the client. iii. Extra expenditure on particular deliverables necessary for the construction of the chilled water plants and intake stations including the replacement of the old machinery. iv. ◦ to conduct Front End Engineering Design (FEED) by acoustics expert to assess the noise level based on preliminarily selected design performances. ◦ upon completion of the cooling system, the acoustic expert will perform the noise test to ensure the noise levels are within limits as per standard code. vii. To ensure and verify the facility is installed and operated to meet the requirements of the project, hence, Testing and Commissioning (T&C) will be conducted for all district cooling-heating equipment and associated distribution systems in due diligence whilst in line with T&C requirements of fundamental and enhanced commissioning.
A systematic approach will be adopted for RXXX project to facilitate the whole T&C process. Therefore, the megaprojects require an efficient and effective approach to facilitate accuracy and timely sharing of data and documentation including engineering designs, construction work, and commissioning data. This was crucial in the project as it facilitated toward reduced wastes and delays in the project life cycle by established standards and user requirements definition. This entails the examination and identification of opportunities to enhance standardization and streamlining of the supplier process and requirements. The integration of the supplier, contractors and shareholders interface of this EPC project has facilitated to the minimization of wastes through the elimination of non-value adding processes and inefficiencies. The Project Dempsey was challenged by the delays and cost overrun.
The objectives of the research were: i. to identify factors influencing EPC projects to interface management, ii. to identify the challenges of interface management across the EPC project life cycle, and iii. to recommend the suitable solutions to counter interface management influences and challenges. Based on the case studies evaluated, they postulated various problems and critical issues in interface management that can be vital in the success of the projects. Therefore, ineffective identification and definition of the project goals and deliverables will derail the alignment of these objectives with key stakeholder thus creating mishaps in the process of project integration. This will result in substantial budget and time overrun as the communication that facilitates the informing and aligning contracting parties will be curtailed resulting in unclear responsibilities.
The case study of EPC projects indicated that interface management was also influenced by the working environment. For the EPC project, each phase had different contractors and objectives which heightened coordination challenges. Each of the project phases had varying technicalities and complexities that made interface management hard. For example, it was critical to analyze both the physical and non-physical interfaces including the environmental data and the site condition. Besides, being located near Game Park, they had to adhere to the regulatory rules and limits. On the side of the Project Dempsey construction project, interfaces such as site geometrical information condition, environment protection (residential noise) regulations, safety rules and regulations, installation and lifting machines, etc. had to be critically evaluated for effective interface management.
Therefore, both internal and external stakeholders and their coordination influences and challenges interface as the various participants and activities critically influence the success of a project. Among the administered questionnaires, eight were filled hence a response rate of 80%. Mugenda and Mugenda, (2003) highlight that the 50% response rate is sufficient enough for statistical reporting. On average, the interviewees had worked in their respective organizations for at least three years where only two (2) had worked for less than two years. The mean average of which the employees existed in the organization was six (6) years. Therefore, the interviewees had sufficient knowledge and information regarding challenges and influences of interface management in EPC projects. 24537655 Median 6 19 120 Mode #N/A #N/A #N/A Standard Deviation 3. 61756236 Sample Variance 10 41.
2 Kurtosis -1. 067199889 Skewness 6. 93889E-17 -0. Moreover, 12. 5% underscored that interface management promotes coordination and integration in project management with a similar mean indicating its contribution to time management. The figure below summarizes the benefits of interface management in contract and relationship management in EPC projects. Figure 6. 1:Source Research Data, 2018. Of the interviewees, 20. 69% highlighted that project integration, and stakeholders’ engagement critically challenges interface management in EPC projects. Besides, a mean of 17. 24 indicated that both delays and cost overrun had a great impact on interface management with 13. 79% indicating that legal and environmental regulations constraint interface management in EPC projects. However, employing skilled labor and facilitating efficient executive while enhancing expert knowledge to get accurate cost and time forecast and effective feasibility study and communication and integration will ease Project Interface Management.
” Another indicated, “Interface management starts with understanding the scope and design of the project. Better identification of responsibilities and communication facilitates integration hence interface management. 4 Discussion and interpretation of findings Fundamentally, most of the organization aimed to attain effectiveness and efficiency in EPC project life cycle through interface management. This was indicated by the research as most organizations had implemented, although partially, interface management. Additionally, the importance of involving all the major stakeholders in decision making cannot be underestimated as it provides the insight into the design and nature of the project. The author further highlighted the importance of a feasibility study before the inception of any EPC projects. In Project Dempsey, the environmental feasibility and financial feasibility were not well conducted which resulted in the budget overrun and delays.
5 Chapter Summary Data and literature analysis chapter highlight the findings of the author. This chapter addresses the empirical analysis of literature and case studies to support or negate the research hypothesis. Some recommendations were made based on the case studies and the data analysis which were based on the research objectives. The research objectives were to identify factors influencing the EPC project life cycle, evaluate interface management challenges, and recommend suitable solutions to such shortcomings. The study revealed that many organizations engaging in EPC projects are taking great steps toward the establishment of a comprehensive, effective and efficient interface management. The research highlighted that most interface management decisions are influenced by the scope and design of the construction. Besides, the legal regulations including protection of natural resources and environmental pollution greatly impacted interface management.
Third parties play a vital role in interface management and therefore their integration and coordination should be facilitated. Thirdly, the scope of the project including the architectural design greatly influenced interface management. This indicates the importance of effective communication during pre-commissioning to startup to facilitate understanding of the project scope and clearly identify the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder in the project. Besides, communication with legal teams as well as external participants (suppliers) is critical to avoid any delays or any other derailment that might culminate from due to miscommunication. Fourthly, the challenges and influences of the project interface management are determined by the project type and its operational environment. Ineffective or incomplete project plans and or design iii. Change in project scope iv.
Inadequate and inconsistent budgeting and timing of the project v. Unclear and or mismanaged roles and responsibilities vi. Technological changes vii. b. There were limited organizations that had fully implemented interface Management in their operations. Besides, the projects of the various organizations were in different stages of the projects life cycle. The research relied on the willingness and consent of the project manager to get the information thus leading to less than anticipated scope. The data used was from interviewees who were willing to take part in the study hence lack of enough basis for statistical inference. Further, to adopt standardized project management tools, procedures, templates and forecasting methods of statement and importantly to ensure their adoption. Secondly, communication and coordination should be enhanced and be made a priority in interface management.
There should be an effective way of sharing information between each stakeholder of the project. Besides, the organization should devise a comprehensive channel of communication proactively and heavily to facilitate project coordination. Additionally, it may be beneficial to put in an evaluation process or a peer review for project stakeholders to ensure reliable implementation of best practice. • To explore with technology integration and study the feasibility of adopting digitization and standardization frameworks for continuous enhancement of interface management. 6 Chapter Summary. This chapter encompasses the conclusion from the finding of the research paper on the challenges and influences the interface management in EPC projects. The findings of the research revealed that most of the firms in EPC projects are taking advancement steps to establish effective and efficient interface management.
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pdf Wang, G. , Du, L. , Duffield, C. F. and Wei, Y. Relationships among risk management, partnering, and contractor capability in international EPC project delivery. com/papers/comparing/comparing. pdf Zavadskas, E. K. , Turskis, Z. and Tamošaitiene, J. (8) What are the major project risks and how do you manage them? (9) How do you communicate the EPC project issues and status? Is the approach effective and if not, what do you recommend? (10) What are the major challenges of interface management in EPC projects? (11) What are the major project constraints and how do you handle them during interface management? (12) Who are the major decision makers in capital projects? Are you involved in decision-making? (13) What do you recommend that will facilitate Interface management and project performance?.
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