COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIC FARMING IN INDIA AND CHINA
Not only does it have the capacity in terms of land, labor, and technical efficiency, it has the greatest market for organic food in the world. This research provides an overview of organic food production in a comparative study that pits China and India. Introduction Organic farming has been a highly debated concept with regard to the global sustainability in food production. The debate has been charged by the contentious use of synthetic means of food production in order to feed a burgeoning population. The ability of synthetic food production to curb food shortages still lay ahead of current organic efforts. Other auxiliary activities like crop rotation, biological pest control, mixed cropping, and companion planting are closely associated with organic farming.
Also, the terms organic can be loosely be termed as the avoidance of synthetic means of crop production or animal husbandry. The greatest culprit is the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides to boost yields. Also, hormonal injection and use of antibiotics in animal husbandry go contrary to organic farming. Background Agriculture has been the center of man's civilization for many years. Animal husbandry was soon exposed to synthetic means of increasing productivity. Hormonal therapy, artificial selection, and breeding among others were used to enhance those qualities that resulted in more yields and suppress others (Francis, 2016). Although the new improvements were welcome, the proponents behind this were blind to the long terms effects of synthetic crop production. Soon, farmers realized that there was a decrease in soil fertility, increased erosions, and soil compaction.
Overall yield was decreased after some time which was traced back to these new methods of crop production. The market was barely there. Customers could not find any difference between organic and inorganic products apart from the undesirability of organically raised products. This has changed with increased awareness and legislation that has differentiated organic products from the synthetic ones. The market is no longer supply driven but demand is driven. Customers are demanding more organic products than they were a while ago. In a technical manner, they are components of carbon that make life forms. Inorganic components are also found in the foundation of life but either as trace elements or in conjunction with others (Weil et al. Their use achieves the intended purposes but has detrimental side effects which pose a long-term threat to crop failure and sustainability.
Therefore organic farming has evolved into a discipline that describes the methods that can be classified as organic and those that do not. Basically, all synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are prohibited from organic farming. The hazards posed by human waste makes the use of such products dangerous to the consumers. In plants, growth regulators and hormones which are all synthetic are prohibited. Organic farming ensures that plants are grown close to their natural environments. The use of antibiotics, hormones and artificial insemination (AI) in animals is also excluded from organic farming (Fahad et al. AI is grossed over by the widespread practice of using it with genetically modified semen which makes its contrary to organic farming goals. This is done to re-circulate nutrients back to the soil.
The work of microbes breaks down the complex matter into simple organism materials that can be easily absorbed by the plants for their use (Mäder et al. Natural breeding is also another way of increasing productivity. This is done by selecting those plants that exhibit qualities that can be expressed for continued productivity. The bearers of these qualities whether animals or plants became the parents of the next generations. Laws are enacted in countries willing to pursue organic farming that provide standards to be met for products to be termed as organic. It is illegal in most countries to have inorganic products labeled as organic. This is tantamount to false advertising which is an offense (Parasidis et al. Importantly, the legislation stretches back to the source of the product.
By ensuring that the farm itself is free from inorganic traces, laws ensure that the practice of organic farming is well maintained. They either plant early or late to ensure there is little or no cross-pollination with inorganic crops. This legislation is well documented which ensure that there is sufficient information for anyone who is willing to become an inorganic farmer. Furthermore, the legislation ensures that customers are not hoodwinked in the market. The government, in this case, certifies that a product is organic by either giving a certificate or a stamp indicating the status of the product (Reganold&Wachter, 2016). Also, a disclosure is required for these products which are not organic but are sold as close associates. This practice has limited organic products to niche markets where the volumes are barely sustainable (Basha et al.
However, the long-term danger of products started seeping into the market. The availability of alternatives inform of organic products started the market reforms. This reform came as a change from supply pushed the market to a demand pulled one. The legislation that demarcated the line between inorganic and organic food has made the products more appealing and distinct (Willer&Lernoud, 2016). However, it is with the bitter realization that many discovered the unsuitability of inorganic products. This is what led to the organic movement. The key is to ensure sustainability of food production both in volume and quality (Godfray& Garnett, 2014). The food should be able to satisfy the population as well as minimize hazards it poses to the customers. Health hazards are among the greatest threats from inorganic products.
A deep insight was sought from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture that makes various publications on global state of organic farming. In addition, the research depended on data from the world watch institute that provides status update on the sustainability efforts carried out in various sectors. Other articles especially those that are forced on China and India organic farming were consulted in varying scales. The research excised due diligence in verifying the credibility of the data from these sources. This was done by using articles which were peer-reviewed and approvable by learning and research institutions. In India, the usage is much lower at 165 kilograms per hectare of arable land. Farmers Acceptance Level In India there are 585,200 Indian producers who have shifted from synthetic to organic farming.
However, in China, only 9,900 farmers engage in organic farming. Number of Organic Producers China has a small number of organic producers numbering to 9,900. India on the other hand has 585,200 organic food producers. Organic farming pales in comparisons with other forms of farming. To underscore this, most of the land is in rural areas and is poorly managed. This land represents only 0. 3% of arable land in China. Goals of sustainable organic farming pale in face of such underutilization. It was here that traditional methods of farming and science mingled to yield the protocols of organic farming that still useful even today. Therefore compared to China, India is way ahead in organic farming. The population pressure is almost comparable despite the huge urbanization in China.
However, the spirits of sustainability make India conducive to the growth of organic markets. Farmers have a rich heritage which they are reluctant to erode with science and polluting products. A huge percentage of all world fertilizer and related products like pesticides are used in China. While this future may be amplified by the vastness of the country, the efforts dedicated towards better practices are virtually nonexistent. India, on the other hand, has inculcated a culture that shuns expediency for long-lasting efforts. This has seen a trend which has put India on a path for stable arable farming. More land is being dedicated to organic farming which is encouraging given the expanding global demand. Among these is India which has maintained a lead in global sales of organic food.
The India market generates more sales than any other from organic food. The huge percentages of the organic producer in the world make it a top seller in the world. This share of global sales is a manifestation of the long-lasting fruits of organic farming which is painstaking and requires discipline. Ironically, China has a large market of organic food products. As a manifestation of this, India has a lot of its organic collection from the wild that contributes to the organic food basket. This is indicative of efficiency. The wild collection of lands which is negligible in China contributes greatly to the efforts of producing food organically. Recommendations Subsidization India promises to be a global leader in organic food production.
This can only be achieved by subsidizing organic food production in India. Legislation The government is at the forefront of preventing hostile competition from other pseudo-organic products. Organic products are priced for their health benefits, natural cultivation and some advocate their quality. However, in absence of clear legislation, it is hard to tell which products have been grown organically. In India, organic food certification has increased which is a good sign. China is also pursuing this trend where organic products are certified differently from natural or green products grown under different conditions. This may lead to confession. Products named as natural or green may deviate from the organic processes of production. Therefore, certification process should be trailed from the farmers practices up to the packaging of the products to ensure that they are strictly organic.
This will protect the market from exploitation and guarantee the premium prices for the producers. Conclusion In conclusion, organic products are increasingly finding their rightful place in global markets. , Landes, X. , Xiang, W. , Anyshchenko, A. , Falhof, J. , Østerberg, J. X. Long-term feasibility of reduced tillage in organic farming. Agronomy for sustainable development, 35(1), 339-346. Barański, M. , Średnicka-Tober, D. , of the Peasant in the Global Organic Farming Movement. Itinerario, 41(1), 75-91. Basha, M. B. , Mason, C. , Hullinger, A. , &Brislen, L. Manipulated Masculinities: Agribusiness, Deskilling, and the Rise of the Businessman‐Farmer in the United States. Rural Sociology, 80(3), 285-313. Brown, A. C. , Buckingham, S. & Mayer, C. Assessing soil organic matter changes in an organically managed long-term crop rotation experiment. Aspects of Applied Biology, 128, 111-118.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(24), 7611-7616. Fahad, S. , Nie, L. , Chen, Y. , Wu, C. Organic Designs and Agrarian Practice in Uttarakhand, India. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, 36(2), 118-128. Godfray, H. C. J. L. , Nelson, W. L. , & Beaton, J. D. Naik, M. H. , Srivastava, S. R. , Godara, A. Economics of Agriculture, 64(1), 323-337. Parasidis, E. , Hooker, N. , & Simons, C. T. , & Waldron, J. K. 2016 Integrated Pest Management Guide for Organic Dairies. Sekhon, B. S. R. The nature and properties of soils. Pearson. Willer, H. , &Lernoud, J. 421 Mode #N/A Mode #N/A Mode #N/A Mode #N/A Standard Deviation 304005 Standard Deviation 261629. 5 Standard Deviation 0. 035355 Standard Deviation 3. 239963 Sample Variance 9. 24E+10 Sample Variance 6. 842 Count 2 Count 2 Count 2 Count 2 Largest(1) 1609928 Largest(1) 460000 Largest(1) 0. 25 Largest(1) 4. 712 Smallest(1) 1180000 Smallest(1) 90000 Smallest(1) 0.
2 Smallest(1) 0. 13 Confidence Level(95. 241 Confidence Level(95. 0%) 3654940 Co-relational Analysis Organic Land Coverage(ha) Growth of Organic Farmland(ha) Growth of Organic Sales (%) Organic Market Share(Billion Euros) Input of Chemical Fertilizers(Kg/ha) Farmers Acceptance Level Number of Organic Producers Land under wild collection (ha) Organic Land Coverage 1 Growth of Organic Farmland -1 1 Growth of Organic Sales -1 1 1 Organic Market Share 1 -1 -1 1 Input of Chemicals 1 -1 -1 1 1 Farmers acceptance level -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 Number of organic producers -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 Land Under Wild Collection (ha) -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 On average, China has more land that has been dedicated to organic farming. This land however exhibits only the potential rather than god performance. The growth rate of organic agriculture in China is far below average.
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