Comparison of Two Methods of Electricity Production

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Physics

Document 1

This study will compare two methods of electricity production and their importance. Furthermore, it will also clarify their reliability by looking at their various potentialities and efficiency. More than 20% of global electricity production tends to come from renewable sources (Observ). For instance, in 2012, the renewable electricity production increased by 4699. 2 TWh across the globe, with fossil fuels making about two-thirds, i. 1 to 4699. 2 TWh. As a result, the annual growth rate was increased up to 4. 7% in comparison to that of fossil fuels which were 3. 9% as well as conventional electricity (3. The concept of conventional HPP is often based on its basic elements. They include the intake, penstock, and surge chamber as well as the dam that holds the water back. HPPs technologies are often regarded as convenient due to their reliability, commercial, and mature nature.

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HPPs can be identified according to their different characteristics including size (Pico-hydro: up to 5 kW; micro-hydro: 5 kW to 100 kW), their ‘head’ or height of the waterfall and their function or facility type. In terms of its size based on the facility type, HPPs can also be distinguished according to three major categories. Storage or reservoir HPPs Storage or reservoir HPPs tend to use artificial lakes to enhance electricity outputs within the energy storage system. Energy can be stored in the reservoirs over a long period of time, usually ranging from days to even years. Also, storage HPPs may act as a base-load, which in turn, facilitates the turbine capacity in comparison to the generation potential. However, this may be considered as huge engineering tasks since storage HPPs normally require the construction of a dam.

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Furthermore, they may also cause significant environmental impacts due to the limitations of topographical opportunities in relation to the construction of dams. Fig: an NPP (Schematic Overview) According to Michaelides (2012), NPPs are composed of various basic elements. They include the reactor fuel, the fuel moderator, the coolant fluid or reactor coolant, the control system and safety devices, and the radiation shield. NPPs can also be categorized according to their neuron’s energy levels, the type of coolant (water, gas, or liquid metal) as well as their moderator type (water, graphite or heavy water). Nowadays, thermal reactors make up 82% of NPPs. In most cases, water is often used either as a coolant or a moderator. ii. ) Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors Canada developed the idea of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in an attempt to drive the reactor by using unenriched natural uranium.

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The reactor uses heavy water as a coolant and moderator. The Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors have relatively low efficiency and higher capital costs with values ranging close to 30%. The reason for this is because the implementation of heavy water is slightly expensive compared to conventional PWRs. For developed countries, moving away from a production-based economy tends to be considered as a reliable option since electronic capital goods can be accessed in countries experiencing rapid industrialization. Thus, the growth of electricity production can be used as a means to facilitate economic development across different regions of the world. Works Cited Grigsby, Leonard L.  Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. CRC Press, 2016. Criteria and indicators for conducting a sustainability assessment of different electricity generation technologies in Morocco, Jordan and Tunisia.

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