Ancient bones Rewriting History and Future
Document Type:Research Paper
Americans started eroding support for an earlier human presence with the first Clovis model in the early 2000s. The new understanding about the people on how they finally conquered the new world started to take shape. The Homo sapiens arrived by boat through the America’s western coast about 15,000 years ago. The researchers described the broken bones of the mastodon and battered rocks found on a site located in southern California and argued that the remains shows that the humans existed 130,000 years ago in America (Caine, 320). If the researchers proved to be right, the finding would raise a lot of questions for an assumption that were held so long, that Homo Sapiens was the only and the first human family member to arrive in the world.
The result showed that mastodon bones aged 130,000 years, 100,000 years older compared to the ancient commonly accepted America’s archaeological sites. The Cerutti Mastodon sites today reside in the center of an urban setting, unlike in 130,000 years ago where it was a windy stream near a coastline in a flood plain. The majority of the researchers agree that Americans came from northeastern Asia and argued that at 130,000 years ago the Neandertals, Denisovans, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens had been existing in that section of the world. Holen suggested during a press conference that, the new findings would motivate different archaeologists to go out and search for more sites. Experts that were not involved in the new study were not pleased about the team assessment and hence expressed deep skepticism, due to maltreated stones and broken bones that reflected human activity.
Other bones sampled were totaling to fifteen with cultural alterations attributable to human activities found, and additional twenty-one samples with cultural modification also identified. According to the report, the traces found on these bones were not related to the carnivore activity. As a result, the presence of straight, parallel, multiple marks observed on both specimens with internal micro-striations did not qualify carnivore as the potential agents. The result of the findings gave evidence that the native American’s ancestors spent a lot of time in Beringian refuge isolated during the period of last glacial when the ice sheets were found to be at their maximum extension. Ancient bones have a positive impact on our lives as they could help fight TB.
On the other hand, the majority of bacterial infections such as TB, Syphilis, and leprosy left major bone injuries that made it easy for researchers to identify. The copses of the 1918 flu epidemic were recently exhumed by scientist because they were buried in marked graves which made the data from the examination to be essential in making medical fortifications against future outbreaks. The arthritis spread was also experienced during the digs in Britain during the middle ages of the population. The weaning of children at the age of three has been experienced by archaeologist with history suggesting that weaning the children early as we do recently is not necessary. The teeth and bones analysis done in London from the burial sites had found that Yersinia pestis was the bug that had been causing the bubonic plague.
Boss extracted their DNA from dental pulp. There was also a suggestion that Yersinia pestis strain found was connected to the Black Death and not to the Justinian plague which were a sequence of epidemics that had affected Europe in the early days. It was also believed that the outbreaks were caused by a variety of Yersinia pestis which today is not present in humans, and therefore hard to link them to the bubonic plague advanced cases. According to the research, it seems that the Black Death in the 14th Century was a new disease which has no historical resistance. The speed of the disease and how it spreads was the severity of the signs similar to the ones of smallpox when it hit Amerindian population.
The well-preserved bones were found in a pauper’s grave where their faces looked down to the location of the urban poor. You will also identify that the world of the poor is always ignored because no record is kept about them since they are considered to own nothing. The investigators had an idea that context 958 age was ranging between 40 and 70 years old at the time when he died. He had a broad masculine jaw and a thick neck, which was above the average in height with healthy bones showing the attachment of muscle markings and wore. The attachment meant that he used to do hard physical labor during his life. It is tempting to fill the gaps of his biography based on what the scientist has discovered from context 958 teeth and bones.
Freshly excavated fossil skeletons are preferred amplification of old DNA despite the massive potential of analyses for phylogeographic studies of ancient DNA of the elderly population. The inefficient ancient genetic material recovery was limited due to the impact of the examination done with fossil samples coming from history museum collection that was natural. The treatment of fossil bone or the standard storage conditions in these collections can be harmful to DNA survival. Researchers found that non-treated unwashed and freshly excavated bones contain DNA that is six times more. Most of these studies greatly depended on microscopic examination of autopsies (Rutherford, 432). The health of the rural as well as urban ancestors together with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis could easily be identified through the advanced methods by the palaeopathologists hence providing answers to some medical problems happening in our time.
Work Citation Caine, Rachel. Ink and Bone. London: Allison & Busby, 2015:320. Print. Quayle, Stephen, & Thomas R. Horn. Unearthing the Lost World of the Cloudeaters: Compelling Evidence of the Incursion of Giants, Their Extraordinary Technology & Imminent Return. Crane.
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