Ecosystem Goods and Services

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Management

Document 1

Human activities over the years have, however, altered the capacity of the ecosystem and destroyed biodiversity in attempts to deliver various goods and services (Harrison et al. In the recent past, the societies did not conceive the significance of the ecosystem and regarded to it as public property with little value. Scientists have predicted that the global population will hit 8 billion by the year 2013 and this could precipitate drastic food, water, and energy shortages (Cecille, et al. The loss of services from the ecosystem calls for more succinct and costly options. An article published by GreenBiz. Once the ecosystem ifs destroyed, the restoration process can be so hectic, challenging and costly (Reed et al. Various studies have reported that the 11% of the natural regions as per August 2000 could be depleted by 2050.

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It was also reported that up to 40% of the current agricultural land could be converted to intensive farming lands precipitating a disappearance of 60% of the coral reefs by 2030 (Costanza, 2016). Preservation of the ecosystem is a practical necessity as well as an ethical duty for the current and future generation. Baral, Guariguata, and Keenan (2016) indicate that companies should invest in the planting of forests, especially in areas that are likely to support such trees which will be used as a source of raw material. It is, therefore, important for the investors, stakeholders and policymakers to monitor ecological changes and take appropriate actions. How people depend on the ecosystem services The ecosystem provides various benefits to humans known as EGS. The goods provided by the ecosystem include foods such as vegetables meats and fish, water and fuels as well as timber.

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The four different services identified by the experts are those that deal with the provision of services that supply the actual goods such as fiber, timber, food and water, and the regulatory services that govern the populations of humans and animals, the climate, waste and spread of diseases (Elekwachi et al. Other services include the cultural services that decipher through beauty, recreational and inspirational activities that contribute to the spiritual welfare of the humanity as well as supporting services that include nutrient cycles, photosynthesis, and soil formation, all that are related to growth and production. One pound of carbon dioxide is saved by eliminating one mile of vehicle drive. The carbon footprint is reduced by 3. 2 pounds for every 10 minutes a vehicle engine is turned off in a traffic jam.

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The recycling of disposable waste, such as plastic bottles and bags, save up to 60% of energy consumption. Using energy saving bulbs would save on the energy wastage through the production of a lot of heat. In sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, statistics show a decrease in productivity of major food crops for the next 40 years because of air pollution. Air pollution also emanates from transportation accounting for half of the total carbon footprint (Cecille et al. Commercial and industrial sectors account for about 20% of carbon emission from burning coal, oil and gas. Development of a proposed EGS framework using the principle of green jobs Evaluation of the EGS from the planted trees could serve various purposes such as raising the awareness and precision of the significance of the planted trees to the local communities, policymakers, environmental NGOs and investors (Roy et al.

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The efficiency of limited funds is also improved and land is thus used better. Following the provision of EGS by the planted trees, effective planning and management of the EGS will need to be improved through evidence based practice (Roy et al. The proposed EGS framework covers the beneficiaries of the latter and enables qualitative and quantitative assessment of EGS sources. The EGS framework needs to be tested across various locations to make it more generalizable. Various considerations for management and planning of the EGS of the planted forest were made based on current literature and evidence. More studies should be carried out on the assessment tools and their testing to ensure that they can be used across a wide variety of geographical settings.

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