Human Relation and System Theories

Document Type:Article

Subject Area:Management

Document 1

With the advancement of technology, the practice of management has progressed over a long period from the time of classical theorist (Willmott, 1992). This enabled the management team to discharge their duties appropriately. Irrespective of these changes, managers still experience challenges that are the optimum utilization of the resources, enhanced productivity, and accomplishment of organizational objectives. This the reason management theorists endlessly look for a means to harmonize with the changes in present societies. Therefore, leadership and management literature are shaped by human relation and system theories (Marquis, 2009). Human relation approach to management Classical theories are established on condition that when management could suitably control, organize, and plan organization and job would increase productivity. These traditional approaches give emphasis to technical features of the work, at expense of the job’s personal features.

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This feature is evidently in the works of traditional theorist such as Lillian Gilbreth and Fredric W. Taylor (Whiting, 1964). Hence, it is not shocking that theories were later advanced that tested some classical fundamentals. Together with his associates founded the application of scientific technique in their studies of individuals in an employment setting (Sarachek, 1968). They introduced social man inspired by a desire to establish a relationship with others. Human relation scholars usually have confidence that if the management displayed more regard for their staff their contentment must increase that would result in an increase in performance (Katz, 1978). Behavioural approach to management Behavioural approach is often regarded as behavioral science method developed by behavioral scientist comprising anthropologist, psychologist, and sociologist who pursued ways of enhancing organization efficiency (Katz, 1978).

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A behavioral perspective on management is a view that highlights the significance of attempting to comprehend various aspects that influence human behavior in a company. Hugo, in his work, industrial efficiency, and psychology advocated that productivity would be increased in three ways: through seeking the best probable person, establishing the best probable work, and through the application of psychological effects. Limitations of human relation theory Human relation theory has various challenges. It is regarded to be swaying in the opposite of classical theory i. e. the theory looked only human variables as vital and despise other variables. The unqualified application of human relationships in all scenario is not conceivable. System theory System theory is a science that has the relative study of systems as an entity.

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There are various types of systems such as machines, organism, physiochemical systems, and social systems (Duncan, 1972). Such a relative study program for varied types of systems presumes extremely general ideas of systems, for which various aspects have been anticipated such as the interdependency of the parts of a structure, the position of any system and process in a system to the environments of the system. System theory development Scholars and theorist from different disciplines started basing new theories on system theory as system theory developed. System theory assists in identifying the reason why the challenge or problem exists. Furthermore, it permits us to communicate effectively for the reason that it takes us from observing the problem narrowly to widening our perspective to the entire scenario.

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System theory applications in management In applications of system theory on management, we focus on the value, knowledge, relationships, environment, complexity, quality, and adaptations (Kast, 1972) Value From the approach, the organization is observed as holistic systems branded by the high extent of integration between the aspects intervening in the process of value establishment (Kast, 1972). The company’s value can be articulated as the possibility of existence, improvement, evolution. Business value development is associated with both the supra-system and sub-system. Conclusion This research paper explored the human relations and system theories in shaping the management and leadership literature. The paper determined that the two approaches are still applicable in modern management and thus request the managers to not only center on the task or job to be done but also consider workers side.

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