LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE OF LEADERS
Therefore, SI of leaders, refers to leaders’ ability to successfully build relationships with their subjects or employees and colleagues, and navigate the social environment. SI helps leaders boost their “people skills” and learn and understand how people behave both individually and as a group, to enable them to adjust and adapt according to different working environment, which includes complex socialization processes such as family, politics, competition etc. For leaders, talent and intelligence quotient (IQ) is not enough when dealing with people of diverse personalities and backgrounds, it is crucial to learn SI, which according to Tutorialspoint, is not innate, and can be practiced. According to Ronald Riggio (2008), Cutting-Edge Leadership, there are key elements of social intelligence: • Verbal fluency and conversational skills – the socially intelligent has the ability to carry on conversations with a wide variety of people, and is tactful and appropriate in what is said, this combination is called social expressiveness skills.
• Knowledge of social roles, rules, and scripts – socially intelligent individuals learn to play various social roles, and well versed in the informal rules and norms that govern social interaction. Goleman (2008), requires “protoconversation”, ability to take in micro expressions, voice intonations and gestures, this requires self-awareness and social facility, knowing how to have effective interactions, for example establishing synchrony, self-presentation, influencing the outcome of social interactions, and showing concern for others’ needs. It is key in developing social intelligence, to develop effective listening skills, to effective respond to people’s needs, especially as a leader, it is important to listen, listen with attunement, and empathy, by sensing other people’s feelings. It is also important to study social situations, regard everything around you as a series of related events.
Social situations are varied, could be norms, behaviors, conflict, relationships etc. , it is important to adapt to different situations. this is because leaders with high social intelligence are successful in problem solving and increasing creativity by getting the best out of the employees. Therefore, they are able to select appropriate responses and to be flexible, (Robert, 2008). Social intelligence is also key to workplace communication and innovation (Phipp, 2007). This is because intelligent leader will know how to communicate, by saying the right things appropriately without stepping on anybody’s toe. If there is free flow of information, performance is enhanced and conflicts and concerns aired out and dealt with, with enough social sensitivity so that all parties are left satisfied. Social relations is key to work place communication and innovation, (Phipp, 2007).
Organizational change projects require effective and systematic communication, to allow for the free flow of information, which will catalyze change project success. Social intelligence plays a role in organizational change projects by creating understanding, relationships, and avoiding conflicts. Elements of social intelligence serve to reduce stress by moderating conflict, promoting understanding and relationship and fostering stability and cooperation, (Kolski-Andereco, 2010). These are essential elements in a change environment where there is a lot of anxiety. Bibliography 1. Riggio, R. , Reichard, R. E. The Emotional and Social Intelligences of effective leadership: An emotional and social skill approach. , Boyatzis, R. E. Social Intelligence and The Biology of Leadership. Harvard Business Review, 86(9), 74-81 5. Delic, L. R. Fostering Emotional and Social intelligence in Organizations. Organizational Management Journal, 3(3), 190-209 7.
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23 No. 1 pp. Eketu, A. Social Intelligence, Self-esteem, and Intercultural Communication Sensitivity. Intercultural Communication Studies XVII: vol. 2 Pp. Farhad, R. , Ebrahimpour, H. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol. 30 Issue 6, pp. Honeywill, R. Social intelligence is also being able to make important social decisions which can change your life. The man problem: destructive masculinity in western culture. The charisma quotient. New York: Dodd Mead 33. Brown, B. Emotional Intelligence: Implication for Human Resource Development. Otago Management Graduate Review, Vol. Walker, R. E. , Foley, J. M. Social Intelligence: Its History and Measurement. Dong, O. , Koper, R. G. & Collaço, C. M. The interrelationships of self‐monitoring factors, personality traits, and nonverbal social skills, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, Vol. 7, pp. Snow, N. Virture as Social Intelligence.
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