Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Engineering

Document 1

The modification process discussed in the study is essential for homogeneous dispersion in the polymer matrix and for better compatibility for composite preparation. Nanocrystalline -based nanocomposites are nonabrasive, nontoxic, affordable, transparent and they contain biodegradable properties. As a result, nanocrystalline cellulose is suitable for various biomedical applications. They can be used in cardiovascular applications, tissue engineering, drug delivery, medical implants and wound dressing. As a result, nanocrystalline-based bionanocomposites are considered green nanomaterials that can be used in biomedical application because of their remarkable mechanical properties. Third paper (Yucheng et al,)the study titled “Drying Cellulose Nanocrystal Suspensions” aims to analyze how different drying methods essentially influence the surface energy and the morphology of CNC’s. The methodology used involved a 6. 5 wt.

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% CNC suspension given by the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison. Distilled water was added to the original suspension before drying took place. After separation, the X-ray patterns selected were corrected and then normalized. Diffraction intensities from non-crystalline and crystalline regions were separated with the use of a computerized method. As a result, isolation of nanocrystalline cellulose is supported if the acidic treatment has an optimal temperature range of 45-55 degrees. The optimal ACR for isolation range is 8-10 and SA at 57-60 wt. % and lastly, the required time range from forty to sixty minutes. As a result, the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals was successful and the chemical treatment applied reduced the fiber’s diameter while they improved its thermal stability. Sixth paper (Johnsy & Sabapathi, 2015) study titled ‘’ Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications’’ aims at discussing sources of cellulose, functions, and applications of cellulose nanocrystals in various fields.

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Cellulose is a natural polymer available on the Earth and it is an important structural component of the cell wall in a variety of plants. Cellulose nanocrystals(CNC) can be obtained from plants, fungi, bacteria, algae and also some sea animals such as tunicates. Cellulose is water-insoluble and fibrous, therefore, it plays an important role in developing and maintaining plant wall structures. Cellulose physical structure consists of two spatially arranged structural units; filament and aggregation structure. Hemicellulose chemical structure consists of xylan, glucomannan, manna, xyloglucan and callose components. Conversely, hemicellulose is a copolymer which consists several saccharide molecules in different quantities. Lignin is an organic polymer extracted from plants. It is the chemical composition of angiosperm and gymnosperm. Ninth paper The study titled ‘’Roadmap 2015 to 2025, Materials from nanocellulose’’ by (Tom et al, 2014) aims to discuss today’s commercial situation and future applications for nanocellulose.

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Nanocellulose is the structural building block of plants and results from a natural synthesis process. Cellulose nanofibrils are produced by disintegration of plant fibers through mechanical, chemical and enzymatic treatment. Today, cellulose nanofibrils are produced and applied in commercial industries. Papermaking industries in Sweden use cellulose nanofibrils to make stronger and lighter paper and also paperboard products. References Aamir H. Bhat, Y. K. Dasan, Imran Khan, H. Soleimani and Amil Usmani. (2012) Optimal Conditions for Isolation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Particles. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/DAYAN%20IT/Desktop/interm%20(1)/interm%20(1). pdf Noor Afizah Rosli, Ishak Ahmad & Ibrahim Abdullah. Isolation and characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Agave Angustifolia Fibre. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/DAYAN%20IT/Desktop/interm%20(1)/interm%20(2). Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/DAYAN%20IT/Desktop/interm%20(1)/interm%20(6).

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