REVIEW OF ACTIVITIES OF NIGERIA FEDERAL MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Management

Document 1

I would claim that the ease of access to taxpayers’ money is a contributor but the similarities in most governments highlight an underlying neglect. Nigeria is Federal administration. The national government takes charge of major services and subdivides the rest to its thirty-six states. The ministry of education is a public docket which is given an admirable attention in terms of budgetary allocation and curriculum development. The literacy levels in Nigeria are very competitive compared to other African countries. Currently, 69. of the males from 15 years and above are literate. Also 49. of females in this age brackets are also literate. This is encouraging though it is still behind the ranks of top countries which have almost full literacy levels. In connection to this, the education sector in Nigeria is keeping up with the pace of education in the world. This statement calls to mind the organization of various sectors and the range of influence in which technology can have on them. When we talk of disintermediation, sectors like energy and petroleum, mining and agriculture come to mind. The rate in which technology has influenced these sectors is laudable. Most of the activities involved have been taken over by machines which carry put most of the work. However the education sector is different in that most of the work must be done by teachers. We are yet to have robotic teacher which call for an intense application of human resources. This is where the quagmire of management comes in to surface. Human resources are evaluated by their performance.

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However, unlike other forms of resources, motivation and training are needed to enhance their performance. Inadequate funding is a great contributor followed by the ignorance on the impact training can have on such a system. The availability of private sector in the education ministry is a challenge which is a good comparing factor for the ministry of education. In this effort, they maintain a high level of training which makes them effective and competitive. However, the same cannot be said for the public sector. Most of the vestiges of good colonial aspects of education like training of teachers is lacking. These are the aspects that should be carried by training. Literature Review Training and Development Training is defined as the skills, concepts and competencies involved in sharpening ones skills in the current job.

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Development on the other hand is the integration of training to ensure that the given employees are equipped well for future changes or processes in the given field. In the respect of this study, we focus on human capital development (HCD) which is enhanced through training (Perna et al. Training is crucial for any sector that wishes to sustain itself. On the other hand, the few who are well trained have to meet the demand by charging exorbitant prices. This highlights the costs of training which can be felt in sectors like that of education. A good examination of training in the education sectors requires the evaluation of the aspects that are required to effects good development into the teachers. Components of Training in Educational Sector The educational sector is composed largely of human resources.

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It is used to augment teaching but it is rare for ICT to replace the physical or virtual presence of a teacher. Tutoring Knowledge This is the basic aspects of tutelage. The fundamental training of teachers is based on their ability to deliver knowledge based in the given curriculum. Therefore, it is paramount that all teachers have a basic understanding of the various aspects of their subjects. When there is a disconnect between what is supposed to be taught and what is actually taught in an institution, inefficiency sets in early enough. The tutors should be master of the subjects they are supposed to cover. In most cases, students are left at loss when they lack the teacher as mediator. The teacher should be the go between on the content dictated by the curriculum and the ability to grasp it.

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However, when this is lacking, the systems get inefficient. It cannot deliver in its promises and those who are part of it miss on their objectives (Satariyan & Reynolds, 2015). It is for this reasons that the education sector differs largely from other sectors. Therefore, trainees in the education sector should ensure that literacy and numeracy skills are well founded. A good foundation ensures that the delivery of complicated materials is made with ease as the child climbs up the ladder. In most setting the foundation knowledge early in schools sets the basis for these skills. Training teacher and delivering efficiency encompasses the foundation of the skills of the intended parties who are the students. It ensures that the system has set the proper ground for the development of knowledge for the students.

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This calls for training in a different way. Technology is part and parcel of the today’s training (Kirkwood & Price, 2014). In ensuring that the education provided is delivered in the intended way, various aspects of technology should be employed. In many developed countries, (as will be explored later in this review) have included technology as part of their teacher training. This includes the ability to use display technology to communicate. Good training should ensure that the differences in students are well understood. Recognition forms the first steps into building bridges on this discrepancy. Various skills are necessary to iron the kinks in learning among the students (Marton & Häggström, 2017). Therefore, providing extra coaching to slow learners for instance or targeting the various interests of different students to ensure the content is delivered.

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This ensures that the students are all incorporated to the objectives of the system. However, talking about good planning and actually doing it are different aspects. This is where training is greatly emphasized. When teachers are not trained on aspects of good lesson or content planning, they will rarely engage in the art. However, when the training takes planning in to consideration, this results in improvement. Therefore, it is with this planning that panning is enhanced. This results to students who are ill equipped to face the dynamics that are there in the industries. This creates a niche which the students have to work to fill. It is therefore paramount that training provided the requisite skills necessary for the identification of sound topics, course work and other materials which will be beneficial to the students.

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Teaching and Communication Professionalism cannot overlook the ability to harness the cooperation of the students in the education systems. I pointed out in the foundation of this paper that education ministry is unlike other ministries. The fear of evaluation erodes the intention of the systems. It leads to the inflation of merits systems which in turns lead to corruption in the systems. This can be avoided by having teachers whose professionalisms supersede the mere application of standing practices. Evaluation of the performance when done by a well-trained teacher avoids such distortion (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). It ensures that the objectives (imparting knowledge or skills) are met rather than having good grades without the backing knowledge. It is incumbent on all teachers to have a way of providing feedback to all these stakeholders to ensure that the objectives set in the education curriculum are achieved (Kneale et al.

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When feedback is provided, it not only enhances professionalism but also gauges the efficiency of the systems overtime. The stakeholders are thus in a position to question missed goals, commend on incredible milestones and provide their insight on the progress. Training ingrains the skills necessary to gather data on the progress of the education curriculum, performance of the students, and dynamics in the market among other parameters. It is also through training that one is able to organize the data collected into coherent form and provides reports to all the stakeholders involved. Again we find that training is the bridge that ensures the success of these attempts. When there are adequate trainings, members of the teaching staff, extra curricula activities among other are able to evaluate their programs to ensure they are following the right directions.

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In most cases, the programs are handed down from ages of successive government without any change. This leads to an archaic way of doing things which goes through a slow process of evolution. However, when the employees are equipped with the right trainings, they are able to ensure that the performance is always kept up to date and that they mirror the zeitgeist at all times. However it takes an incredible training program to ensure that the safety of the learners, their healthy and the general conditions of learning are well taken care of (Turnbull, 2015). The parties involved are always on the look out of the requirement of the policies, legal provision and other elements of general observation concerning safety of the learners. These results in few hazards exposed to the learner and thus they are able to deliver on the intended objectives.

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This is a plus to the efficiency of the system. Learning Environment Although it might appear trivial, the learning environment factors majorly in ensuring that efficiency of the education systems achieved. As inputs in the transformation systems, all conditions should be put in place to ensure that the conditions for their transformation are in place. This results in better qualified outputs which is an addition to the efficiency of the system. Team Work This is the last aspects of professionalism. Whenever the question of team work is posed in any sector, there is an immediate apathy of the efficiency of the idea. However, team work is not only advantageous but paramount if efficiency is too increased. Whenever students collaborate with those of other institutions, they are able to gain insights in to different way of approaching their learning.

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This brought about by the different experiences and competency of their teachers. Therefore, by sharing their experiences as a team they are able to leaner from each other in way that they could not have done on their own. This perspective speaks volumes of the efficiency of the education system. Whenever team work is taken seriously, there are better chances of ensuring the teachers are efficient in their work through learned experience. It only through training that this aspect of team work becomes a reality and thus an increase in efficiency. Values, Attitude and Conducts This is another great competent of training in the educational sector. Values are thus unspoken elements that ensure there is a smooth relationship between all the shareholders involved. Attitudes refer to the view point which is held by the stakeholder about the curriculum or education in general.

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Lastly we have the conduct which is the mannerism or behaviors exhibited by the different stakeholders in this sector. Similarly, the parent may slack in taking care of their student’s welfare such as fees, uniform among other if their attitude is negative too. The teachers on the other hand may not be motivated to teach or undergo the required training to ensure they are efficient in their work. Therefore, attitude pervades the entire system and is curricula or the achievement of intended goals. Lastly we have the conduct which acts as the actions that manifests the values and attitude of the different parties. The conducts ensue there is healthy or unhealthy relationship among the parties; It is a crucial condition of the performance of the education sector is to be attained.

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However, this is not possible if the necessary training has it been done to the teachers and administrators. They should be coached on how to organize the relevant seminars, link their students with informative internship position as well as organize workshops where their theoretical knowledge can find practical input. It also through training that the same the tutors can be able to instill the curiosity which is greatly needed in learning. This curiosity about the efficiency f their knowledge, the milestones made in the industry among other is different from mere teaching of the curriculum. Therefore training highlights the importance of professional development for the seniors learner who are about to leave for the job markets. Formal training underscores the requirement of literacy and numeracy that were hailed in the previous section.

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The tutor’s should be able to have a good grip of literature and numeracy skill regardless of their filed. This processed to the specialization of a given field to narrow the scope and ensure that there is a depth of understanding and command of the subjects. This training also takes into consideration the pedagogical skill. These skills deal with the delivery of the content to the learners. Where foundation training prepares one on the general aspects of the pedagogy and content acquisition, the specifics are tailored on the job. This is made possible through induction training. During this training it is possible to have the nuances of a school environment, a given state and other aspects of geographical, political or natural environment taken into consideration. Therefore, learning environment as well as safety aspects of the education sector are imparted during induction training.

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Job Instruction Training In this type of raining, the skills already imparted in foundation training are furthered. In this respect it is advantageous to further their skills wherever there is change rather than replacing them. Also, t enables the education sector to keep up to date and relevant in terms of performance and achievement of its goals. In the end this ensures that the efficiency of the education sector is kept in the right progress. I also prevent any discrepancy between the intention of the administrator and the delivery given by the teaching and non-teaching staff. Refresher Training This type of training is similar to in job training but it is done for entirely different reasons. Career Advancement Training This is a type of training which although not given by most sectors ex gratia is encouraged for all employees.

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Carrere advancement ensures that is the continuity of a profession without the necessity of enduring g extra costs. The lack of career development results in the acquisition of talent as well as skill from outside resources. The problem facing the energy sector is a good example. Where the current employee lacks the required skills in carrier development they have t use expatriates to manage their affair. These programs are organized in a national level where the different subdivisions of the education sector can learn from each other. This ensures the holistic growth of the education sector which ensures efficiency. However, it can also be carried in the international level where different countries with similar systems of education are able to exchange on the performance. This ensures that the education sector gets an injection of fresh ideas in showcase their progress.

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Exchange programs ensure that the education systems are not resting on its laurels. This ensures that the learner is able to have the content with ease and competency that comes with good training. It is through training that learner is able to sail through school and come out of the end just as like their teacher or even better. The heuristic measure of education achievement is the ability to produce better students that the teacher at the end of the program. Achievement of Education objectives The education sector has objet8ves which are at the backbone of the community and development goals of any county. Every country takes education seriously as it is the source of its quality of labor force (Ball, 2017). Therefore, the goal of the education sector as well as it operating efficiency may be eroded if this mobility is not taken care of (Ball, 2017).

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The way to do this is to ensure that the workers are equipped with different kill which they can use in varied environment. Refresher and in Job training are good examples move enhancing mobility labor. They ensure that workers are able to work in different states, different sectors of education for the enhancement of efficiency. Increasing Competency Many employees in the public sector lag behind in their performance due to lack of the necessary skills. This section evaluates the processes in which various countries have carried out their education training in various countries. Finland These countries tops in the development pillar. Most of their training is geared towards depth of learning. The learners have the highest capability of varied knowhow. Also its older generation has the highest rate of tertiary education in the world.

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The significant part of this enrollment is the influx of foreign students who are attracted to the reputation of these institutions. This makes the US a good case study of the implementation of training in the education sector. The teaching and non-teaching staff ensures that the pedagogical as well safety or environment requirements are well in place for conducive learning (Allen & Seaman,2015). Also the countries have ensured that it adapts to the different requirements of a wade ranging background of the students. This is not possible without adequate training. This is due to the strategic training institutes like the Technical University of Munich, Open School of Management among others. Education Sector Training in African countries Many African countries may lack the level of training that is geared towards the attainment of broad objet8cves due to the low illiteracy rates.

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Therefore, training is seen in terms of reduction in literacy levels and the initiative of the education sector to ensure their workforce is skilled. Equatorial Guinea This country has a huge literacy rate of 95% for both males and females (Dietz et al. This is backed by the active approach taken by the government to ensure that pre-unit enrollment is increased. However, the government took various measures to ensure that the literacy level has been raised. This included training its workforce to meet zero illiteracy in the country (Jones, 2017). After the Al Fateh revolution education of all adults was made a prime goal. Training of education sector employees both teaching and non-teaching was undertaken to ensured that these goals were successful. Rationale of the Research This research is very relevant to the education sector training and specifically to the government of Nigeria.

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Are there any formal training programs for these employees? 3. Do these programmers align with the requirements of Education Sector Training? 4. What are some of the problems related to training in Nigerian Education Sector? Methodology The research, bang investigative dwelled heavily on the use of survey to get its findings. Three clusters were identified which were targeted with questionnaires. The first one is the administrators in the education sectors which include the officials the basic education sector, senior secondary education sector and the tertiary sector. This was done to ensure that the various disconnect clustered were targeted with their own respective questionnaires. However, in a given cluster random sampling was used to ensure objectivity and remove any bias. This factored the selection of samples of individual, schools, or state to target with the questionnaires.

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Limitation of the Survey The research was hundred by several problems. Firstly, it was difficult to pinpoint a representative sample due to the wide discrepancy of education sector training provision. Then there are the curriculum developers, teacher trainers and the official in charge of state level education polices. Other stakeholder involved in training of teacher who a=were indet9fied include the Nigerian Union of Teachers as well as the administration heads in various schools. Formal Training Programs The respondents identified the presence of teaching courses in college and university all over the countries. Additionally, some of the respondents were positive in the identification of formal training programs which are distant from the university course. They include the Teachers Development Programmed (TDP) which is offered by the United Kingdom Government. Last, the respondents identified poor policy implementation as another problem facing teacher training in Nigeria.

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The identified cause includes lack of strategy formulation, political expediency and renege on directive agreed upon. Discussion The Gap This create a situation in Nigeria can be accessed from the viewpoint of the data available in other African countries as well as the world at large. At 56% literacy level, the countries do not live up to its reputation of being the top economy in Sub-Saharan Africa. The countries like Libya and Equatorial Guinea have surpassed this level of education with a great margin. This creates a disconnect between the intention of the policy makers and the results they achieve. This gap is there in the public sector education. The sector is also controlled by politicians running from the minister of education. Although this is not a negative thigh, the expediency with which policy issues are given lip service and the rhetoric that follows crises situation in Nigerian education highlight the gap that exists in the education sector.

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When President Buhari commented on live TV that it was a shock to find teacher who could take a primary school tests, the issue trended n social media without having a resounding effect in the minds of those responsible. Training is the missing brigade in the improvement of the education sector in Nigeria. It is the missing link in which the revitalization of the education is Nigeria should be enhanced. The Minister of education following the education summit in Nigeria hinted these aspects of training as the solution to the Nigeria education sector. He identified professionalisms, implementation of policies and skill improvement as the key factors that should be led into. In other word he was speaking of training the workforce in the Nigeria schools to ensure that they are more effective in delivering to the set goals and polices.

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Also those who make it cannot get the quality of education which ensures their improvement in literacy level. This can be traced in the lack of adequate training in the teacher and the administrators in this sector. The teachers are supposed to have the pedagogical ability to deliver on their intended field. This calls for the mastery of their subjects which is part of foundation training also they should excel in pedagogical skills which ensure that they deliver on literacy and numeracy skills. The administrators are also lacking in their training. Some do not have classes while other lacks the basic amenities. However, although this should be addressed, the lack of teachers who can adapt to these hardships results in high illiteracy levels. The scourge of hostility like that of Boko Harem also creates another challenge.

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This is complicated by the cultural difference in the Muslim north. This calls for the training of teachers who are able to appreciate this diversity and thus works towards the alleviation of the illiteracy rampart in these areas. They would not replace their workforce with a similar bunch who is doomed to copy the same mistakes over and over again. They would also exhibit professional behaviors and use the funds as intended. The wealth created by the oil industry was used to mask the lack of training among the administrators. However, with the setbacks facing the energy sector, the problems have surfaced. It is only with training can the funds be tied to the roper course. Despite having the good facilities and reputable universities, most of the students prefer the tutelage f foreign teacher compared to their own.

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This results in a loss of human capital since the student are prone to remain in the country when they graduate as they seek for better opportunities. The mains reasons for this gravitation towards foreign countries are the search for greener pasture in the foreign countries. They value the quality of education in terms of curriculum relevance to today’s market requirements as well as the teaching skills. There are more practicalities in these teaching compared to the same teaching in Nigeria. This is largely through the eradication of illiteracy levels in the country. The efficiency of the education sector is its ability to deliver on the netted objectives. The increased poverty as acknowledged by the president is the consequence of illiteracy. Any person who lacks the understanding of literature and numeracy faces a challenge in today’s world.

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Therefore, training in the education sector is needed to alleviate poverty. The inclusion of vocational courses in the secondary sector was an indication of positive development. However, this changes its goals if the curriculum is matched by the right human resources. This calls for the training for the employees who are supposed to ensure the education of the students. Therefore, raining leads to the formulation of curriculum which is geared towards the enhancement of the student’s skills. It is through training that the curriculum developers are able to forge the way forward for the learners. Recommendations Revamping of foundation Training The Nigerian education sector is churning out incompetent teacher in every enrollment. This leads to a lack of not only the teaching skill but the content which is the basic foundation of the education sector.

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Therefore, the government should reevaluate the goals of the teacher training which should ensure that competency is returned to the classrooms. Not only are the classes a factor but also the administration of the education sector. Most of the administrators are cronies or products of political afflictions which have not aim in reforming the education sector. It is only through training that these skills can be imparted. This is on job training where the administrators as well as the teacher can be guided towards the path of ingraining professionalism in their work. Curriculum Development The curriculum of Nigerian education needs an overhaul. This is necessary if the influx of expatriates and the outflow of their students are to be avoided. Most of the student goes oversees to seek greener pasture while leaving their state worse than before.

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Conclusion The lack of training results in serious consequences. When training is ingrained in the education systems in Nigeria, efficiency will improve in all sectors. It will see an improvement in the literary levels reduction of poverty levels as well as the retention of human capital in the country. It is only through the provision of training in the education sector that the policies can find the professional standards required for their implementation. Also fund allocation is enabled greatly by the raining provided t the members. Autio, O. Soobik, M. Thorsteinsson, G. Olafsson, B. The development of craft and technology education curriculums and students’ attitudes towards technology in Finland, Estonia and Iceland. Commonwealth of Learning (COL);. Cober, R. Tan, E. Slotta, J. So, H. Education in Africa: recent dynamics and current situation.

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ASC themakaart. Doel, M. Shardlow, S. Sawdon, D. PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, 101. Iruonagbe, C. T. Imhonopi, D. Egharevba, M. Oxford University Press. Jones, A. M. Youth Education and Guidance for Employment in Libya. In Career Guidance and Livelihood Planning across the Mediterranean (pp. S. June). Work in progress: Measuring dispositions toward teaching strategies and their reported use. In 2016 American Society for Engineering Education Conference Proceeding. Kauchak, D. Turner, R. Spowart, L. Hughes, J. McKenna, C. Muneer, R. Springer, Cham. Liu, D. Gong, Y. Zhou, J. Huang, J. Rosenberg, M. S. Westling, D. L. Inclusion: Effective practices for all students. N. Avtionova, N. V. Volenko, O. I. Kishkentayeva, M. Promoting human capital development: A typology of international scholarship programs in higher education. Educational Researcher, 43(2), 63-73. Phillips, J. J. School safety: Comparing students' perceptions with faculty members' perceptions (Doctoral dissertation, Miami University).

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