Robotic Pharmacy utilization limitations and features of adopting AI
Also, researchers wish to extend their deepest gratitude to all those who have, directly or indirectly, contributed to complete this research. List of Contents Acknowledgements 3 List of contents 3-4 An abstract 4 Introduction 5 Literature review 5 Research method 5 Results 5-6 Discussion 6 Conclusion 7 Recommendation 7 Research Significance and Limitation 7 Appendices 7 References 8 An abstract This study focused on analyzing and evaluating an existing Robotic pharmacy as one of the latest smart technologies adopted in the UAE hospitals. The qualitative study was designed to gain insight into the utilizations of the Robotics Pharmacy as well as its limitation. A three government hospitals investigated were all three hospitals are using the same robot pharmacy company, which is Omni-cell Company (Germany Company). Also, a comparison was created between the existing robot pharmacies being used in DHA with another robot pharmacy named UCSF Medical Center pharmacy being used in Germany to investigate the differences between the two robots.
On another hand, will study how the artificial intelligence can effect on the pharmacy work. The qualitative data analysis process through investigating the two defined research questions of the study and according to the methodology applied, the data is analyzed by the researchers to achieve desired findings on the study. According to the data which will be collected from the interviews, the answers of the representatives from each Hospitals will be compared and contrast between pharmacies. Additionally, similarities and differences will be identified and main features of the robotic systems and its limitations will be explored. A tools like MS Excel will be used to analysis the data. As applications need faster and more accurate responses, more precise measurement, understanding, and situational awareness are needed for control [15–18,29].
The virtual and mechanical robots can help in medicine labeling and bar codes scanning as well as packaging and dispensing prescriptions (Butter et al. The future for pharmaceutical practices looks bright with the introduction of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence is one of the revolutionary technological inventions ever done and cuts across several industries. Buvailo (2018) observed that the current pharmaceutical industry has been quite vivid with regards to adapting to artificial intelligence. Once medical applications of artificial intelligence evolve to the point where the system can act as true adviser capable of providing consistently high quality second opinions, the technology could also help rein in the high costs associate with clinical negligence claim (Ford, 2015). Utilization & Limitation of Robotics Pharmacy There are many benefits of the robotics of pharmacy.
King’s College Hospital, London stated that since 2001 there were a significant impact of the robotic dispensing on error rates as from a modest 16% decrease at Wolverhampton Hospital to a 65% decrease. Moreover, it has led to saving in interest costs associated with holding inventory, as well as, the acquisition of the inventory reduction were nearest expiry products distrusted first. A reduction in employment because of focusing in lower paid employee, reduction of overtime cost and outsourcing staff, increase dispensing activity despite of less number of staff and increase in security in relation to storage and access to medication (Ryan, 2013). Moreover, this smart pharmacy will reduce and minimize human error to ensure patients’ safety and guarantee the quality and safety of medication due its barcode system and cold chain of pharmaceuticals.
After the successful implementation of smart or robotic pharmacy in Rashid Hospitals, DHA launched the same system in Dubai Hospital and Latifa Hospital continuously. Furthermore, they will progress to implement the robot in all DHA hospitals to meet UAE strategy by providing World-Class Healthcare. DHA is the first to implement the barcode system in UAE, which lead to ensure the patient safety by giving each medicine a barcode, thus will reduce the chance of mistakes when dispensing medication. They used latest technology to coordinate with the biggest international companies that supply medication (DHA, 2017). This smart robot has an automated process when the doctor enters the prescription into the system, the robot prepares the medicines and adds barcode, which contains patient's and order's information.
The nurse will receive the medicine, scan the barcode and administers medication to patients. UCSF build the robotic pharmacy to improve patient safety and increasing the medical center’s efficiency. The new upgraded robotic pharmacy that planned to upgrade and renovate of the existing pharmacy with an investment of $24m. It later decided to develop a new robotic pharmacy for $15m, without full automation. It also illustrates the differences between the two robots including; cost, operational efficiency, level of pharmacist involvement, safety, speed of delivery, storage, disadvantages and other features (Table1). Results • Omni-cell Company (Germany Company): Robot automation • UCSF Medical Center pharmacy (Swiss and Canadian robots) Automation process The following table summarizes the findings based on the analysis: Comparison Category Omnicell UCSF Medical Center pharmacy Cost • costly • Cost reduction in hospitals Operational efficiency • Can receive prescriptions for oral medicines only.
• The robot can store up to 35,000 medicines. • Improving inventory control by use the medicines near expiry first and alarm if no stock. • Can receive prescriptions for both oral and injectable meds, fill them, and deliver them to patients. Storage • Involve “Medimat”, a core piece that works as a storage warehouse dispensing unit and semi-automated filling system. • Involve a storage system that keeps the medicine. It has pharmacy warehouses (one refrigerated and two non-refrigerated) in which is stored according to temperature requirement. Other features No • Created training opportunity for pharmacy students in the future of medicine distribution systems. Limitations • Considers as Pharmacist Assistant and not Pharmacist • Most of the medicine comes in box package, so if the prescription requires a certain number of the medicine, the robot can’t prepare it.
The UCSF uses a barcoding system which facilitates to receive the prescription quickly more than Omnicell. In the Omnicell, the doctor sends the prescription through the system and the pharmacist check and approve the medicine, then the robot delivers the medicines by barcoding system. Also, UCSF robots are capable to deliver both oral and injectable medicines, whereas Omnicell can deliver oral medicines only. It is found out that Omnicell can deliver 35,000 medicines, the UCSF, on contrast, can deliver 10X the number of medicines in Omnicell, which is around 350,000. The findings emphasize the utilization of technology to drive business solutions, where the robots’ pharmacy was utilized to reduce human mistakes. However, UCSF demonstrates more safety features than the Omnicell. The UCSF can prepare toxic chemotherapy drugs, in a tightly secured, sterile environment for pharmacy employees.
Also, UCSF safety system ensures the nurses receive the medicine with the label contain all information; patient’s name, list of the medications and administration time. The Omnicell, in contrast, can decrease the contamination due to less direct tach the medicines. Also, both robots allow to distribute medications to patients safely without error. This would help students to gain opportunity to generate new solutions for the robot limitations and enhance the robot features regularly. In other words, it opened creativity and innovation opportunity. • Limitations: The findings show that Omnicell and UCSF robots are considered as Pharmacist Assistant not Pharmacist. However, the level of involvement of pharmacist in UCSF robot is lower than the Omnicell robot. The Omnicell robot pharmacy can't prepare injection medicine like vaccine, whereas the UCSF robot can prepare it.
The features of adopting Artificial intelligence (AI) This research pays attention to examine the existing automation Robotic Pharmacy through comparing the utilization and limitations of these technologies. As a result, we have found many limitations that’s need involvement and interface of more advanced technology that can overcome these limitations for more effective and efficiency performance. The implemented automation Robotic Pharmacy is used as retail more than self-decision robotic. Most of previous limitations can be improved through the involvement of Artificial intelligence (AI); as it is the capacity and capabilities installed machines which are majorly considered as the locale of human beings, which have been used in various sectors, thus in pharmaceutical sector it will help in patient care, especially to improve the quality of services.
Some developed country such as; Canada, implement their health care services through ecosystem to benefit from physicians’ creativity and judgment by automating repetitive tasks, data analysis and the medical information collection, to build up the base system which will support the integrating of AI in their systems and makes evidence-based decisions in seconds from scanning the information that human may need minutes to decide. As noted in Omnicell, using AI in the pharmacies allows them to perform tasks consistently and repetitively without being tired and without error. In addition, AI helps to keep track of the medicines in terms of availability and reminding the staff about their expiry date. Despite the fact that the cost of installation of the pharmacy robotics is high, the return on investment is usually high as a result of reduced costs of operations.
The pharmacy requires fewer people to fill the remaining posts since the robotics can do most of the work. Accuracy and effectiveness in the pharmacy industry has improved as a result of the introduction of the artificial intelligence applications. Such indulgence application could act as interactive adviser to doctors for better services. Recommendations The results from the study indicate that there are high opportunities for AI in the pharmacy. This study recommends further studies to establish the exact capabilities of robots in pharmacy especially in decision-making about critical issues such as the safety of some medicines on patients. Moreover, the subject of this study is current and therefore lacks comprehensive coverage as new details are developing every day. The findings and implications will offer guidance to hospitals that wish to develop their systems with latest technologies to advance from maturity level to a more advanced level.
However, there are more opportunities to improve their capacity. Most of previous limitations can be improved through the involvement of Artificial intelligence (AI) as it has the capacity and capabilities when installed in machines which are majorly considered as the locale of human beings. Lastly, it is recommendable that all pharmacies introduce the use of AI in the operation processes as a way of improving their efficiency and effectiveness. As noted through the study, AI provides a world of possibilities to the pharmacies and all pharmacists to improve their capacity in terms of cost reduction, accuracy, improved timing, and other aspects as storage and retrieval of products. Research Significance and Limitation Summary of the research outcomes and recommendations for Ministry of health and Health Authorities in UAE on adopting AI within robot system and suggestions for practical implementation will be provided in the research paper.
0000jctiml18pkdf5wor7q41rqeo8. References for Literature Review Chetan T. &, Mangesh N. , 2016, “Artificial intelligence and Robotic” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2016 Ford, M. “The Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of Mass” OneWorld Publications. , Schoone, M. , Leis, M. , Gelderblom, G. ,& Cremers, G. (2008, Oct). How data analytics and artificial intelligence are changing the pharmaceutical industry. Retrieved from https://www. forbes. com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/05/10/how-data-analytics-and-artificial-intelligence-are-changing-the-pharmaceutical-industry/#51dac3d03644 Clark, T. Adopting health care informatics and technologies. "How Have Robotics Impacted Healthcare?. "The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research 12 (2010): 6-8. Web. [date of access]. <http://fisherpub. Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development, 2(5), 239-241. doi:10. 1380516 Mullett, S. (2009, Feb). Robots used for medication delivery, other tasks.
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