Role of audio visual aids in the schools of Saudi Arabia
It therefore, means that every school produced 25 students and 5 language teachers. The study enquired the kind of audio- visual aids used in these schools and the perception of both teachers and students toward their use. The study further explores on how the audio- visual aids has influenced the process of teaching and learning in the classroom setting in schools of Saudi Arabia. Questionnaires were used as a method of data collection. The researcher prepared 21 questionnaire which will ensure that the researcher gets required data for this study. 3 Research Questions………………………………………………………. 4 Significance of the study ………………………………………………………. 5 Limitation of the study …………………………………………………………. 6 Delimitation of the study …………………………………………………………. 7 Scope of the study …………………………………………………………………17 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………19 2. 3 The use of audio- visual aids in EFL class…………………………………………………. 4 PowerPoint as a visual material…………………………………………………………….
5 The use of Video as audio- visual aids ……………………………………………………. 6 The use of pictures as a visual aids…………………………………………………………26 2. 7 Use of PowerPoint in facilitating presentation skills ………………………………………. 18 Challenges of using audio- visual aids……………………………………………………34 2. 19 The impacts of technical and non-technical aids…………………………………………. 20 Functions of AVA in teaching- learning process…………………………………………. 21 Effectiveness of audio- visual aids for indented students…………………………………. 38 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………41 3. This has facilitated the improvement of the student’s performance while enhancing effective teaching mode. Therefore, a resourceful teacher, especially English teacher, equipped with these tools is desirable in the teaching profession. Some technological techniques such as Audio-Visual Aids (AVA) are found to be utilized in most nations. These technologies are used in schools to aid in effective learning and teaching processes (Kaswa, 2015). Audio-Visual Aids (AVA), denotes a different kind of tools that influence the sense of learning and teaching that are used in the classroom for the presentation of teaching and learning processes.
In schools where there is available equipment and simple operational modes hence makes it easier for the teachers to utilize those aids in the classroom. The use of the electronic tools such as LCD projectors, Digital Labs, and smart-boards motivates the teachers in making the teaching-learning process interesting and attractive. The English curriculum at the university level recommends the utilization of audio-visual aids for effective teaching-learning in the classroom. The Ministry of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia makes it mandatory that all students in the undergraduate course must complete and successfully pass their courses. These courses undertaken at the university especially by the beginner relates to speaking, listening, reading and writing. Therefore, language is learned for the purpose of communication not just as a subject.
It is important for the teacher to integrate different methods of teaching languages in order to make the process effective. The use of audio-visual aids, therefore, becomes necessary in the teaching-learning process. Teachers find it difficult to teach language as they have to remove the anxiety from their learners in order to facilitate an effective understanding of the content. In order to remove this anxiety from the learners and make the lesson more interesting and enjoyable, the teachers ought to integrate different types of audio-visual aids in their teaching process. The work in progress ought to be precisely checked for specialized exactness, appropriate phrasing, language structure, spelling, fundamental adjust, clearness, and effortlessness. Instructional guides ought to likewise be looked into to decide if their utilization is possible in the preparation condition and whether they are fitting for the understudies.
It is intriguing to take note of that an expansive level of prepared educators and those experiencing proficient instructional classes can show mind me of the educating/learning assets. They do as such intentionally in light of the fact that they know the utilization of them have a beneficial outcome on learning results as their related encounters amid educating practice supervision uncovers (Arora, 2013). Making and utilizing instructing/learning assets is an essential part of good educating. Sequencing can be underlined and made clearer by the utilization of differentiating hues (Subar, 2013). Great educating/learning assets can help take care of certain dialect obstruction issue as they give a precise visual picture and make learning easier for the understudy. Another utilization of educating/learning assets is to elucidate the relationship between material articles and ideas to get it.
Images, charts, and outlines can likewise indicate connections of an area, measure, time, recurrence and esteem. By symbolizing the components included, it is even conceivable to utilize a dynamic relationship. Various examinations have endeavored to decide how well educating/learning assets to fill this need. An indication from the investigations changes extraordinarily from unobtrusive outcomes which indicate 10-15 percent expansion in maintenance to more hopeful outcomes in which maintenance is expanded by as much as 80 percent (Cakir, 2006). Learning and instructing is the worry of a prepared instructor. Learning is a complex process. It can be characterized as an adjustment in aura; a moderately perpetual change in behavior after some time and this is achieved mostly by understanding. 1 Statement of the problem Many schools in the world are utilizing the audio-visual aids for an effective learning-teaching process.
In Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Higher Education has introduced a program in all public schools to ensure that technological tools are utilized effectively. Due to the advancement of the technology, new ways of teaching and learning keeps coming forcing the teachers to adopt them in the classroom in order to ensure that they remain competitive in the ministry. The audio-visual aids are widely used in Saudi Arabia for they are known to improve the way the teachers teach and also how the students learn in the classroom. The availability of the resources and effective technological tools in the school makes the learning environment effective hence motivating the students to learn to improve in their studies. 2 Specific objectives i. To find out the general perspective about using the audio-visual aids from the teachers’ point of view in classrooms of Saudi Arabia.
ii. To investigate whether audiovisual aids support the teaching process in schools of Saudi Arabia. iii. What are the impacts of the audio-visual aids on the performance of the teachers and the students in schools at Saudi Arabia? iii. How do the teachers perceive the audio-visual aids from their point of view in Saudi Arabia? iv. Do the audio-visual aids support the teaching-learning process in Saudi Arabia? v. What are the challenges faced by the teachers and the students while utilizing the audio-visual aids in Saudi Arabia? 1. 4 Significance of the study The use of audio-visual aids in teaching language has become common in most the schools in the world yet not many teachers and students might understand its effectiveness. 6 Delimitation of the study This study on the roles of audio-visual aids in the physical classroom settings in Saudi Arabian schools and their impacts on the performance of teachers and the students will be conducted in the several high schools of Saudi Arabia.
The population of the study will be teachers and students of the secondary schools. 7 Scope of the study Due to the advancement of technology, the use of the technological tool such as audio-visual aids has become very popular in schools especially among the language teachers. It is believed that effective use of audio-visual aids in the physical settings of the classroom makes the teaching-learning process interesting and enjoyable. Many students say that they like learning language most when their teachers use different audio-visual aids as this enables them to pay more attention since they are in a position to relate what they are learning with their real life. Providing the overview of the theoretical framework will mean discussing how different theories pertaining the teaching and learning view the audio-visual aids in the classroom setting.
This chapter will further provide a discussion on the usage of different audio-visual aids in classrooms such as videos, PowerPoint slides, songs, audio files, pictures, among others. Additionally, the chapter will give an analysis of the different ways of facilitating the use of different audio-visual aids. Moreover, the chapter will discuss various challenges that affect the utilization of audio-visual aids. 1 Theoretical framework in the use of audio-visual aids in the teaching-learning process There are various theories and concepts which supports the use of audio-visual aids in the teaching-learning process. Its aim is to facilitate the practical use of language in all kinds of communications. The use of authentic materials in the teaching-learning process is highly emphasized in this approach. It is, therefore, important if the teachers can use differently typed of audio-visual aids in the CLT class.
Due to the authenticity of the materials used in this approach, the use of pictures and videos is common as it makes the class interesting and authentic. The CLT class activities relate to the real communication (Mutar, 2009). 4 The use of visual aids in the Direct Method The Direct Method is a teaching method which calls for the complete use of the target language. Teachers do not use the first language (L1) in this approach rather they use the target language to give instructions and other activities. Where the students do not totally understand the target language, the teachers demonstrate and show them something to make them understand without using the L1. This, therefore, makes the teachers to use different visual aids such as posters and pictures in the classroom to enable effective understanding of the target language.
Since the teachers cannot use the LI, they find it easier to use the visual aids in the classroom. Addition, the instructional theory assists the teachers on learning the importance of applying audio-visual aids in their teaching profession to help the students in improving their performance in the academic matters (Suleiman & Hussain, 2014). 7 Students Centered Approach This approach functions against teachers centered. The approach emphasizes the need of students as in the major inputs in the teaching-learning process. This approach is so famous for it is known to influence the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching caused by the use of audio-visual aids in the teaching, entertainment, and the learning process. Learning is therefore seen as to provide certain directives in the understanding of the students in the schools.
The ELT teachers are now incorporating ICT in the teaching process to improve their teaching profession (Asokhia, 2009). The availability of computers has made it easier for the teachers of languages as they can utilize it in the teaching process. In the teaching-learning process, the advancement of technology has made it easier to have improved distance learning and E-learning programs. This makes it easier for the online courses to be conducted by different ELT organizations. Using the available technologies, learners can attend virtual courses and perform effectively. According to the teachers' point of view, the use of PowerPoint makes the students more attentive and due to the content of what is being taught is appealing to them. Despite the more positive comments about the use of PowerPoint in class, some authors claim that the PowerPoint slides are not always helpful in the teaching process.
They claim that the presenter concentrates more on the slides and not to that audience hence drawing the border between them and the audience. Furthermore, these authors claim that it is very hard to have an exchange between the presenter and the audience especially to discuss any other relevant issue which is not available in the course outline while utilizing the PowerPoint slides. However, in his study, Cengizha (2011) found out that students like to be taught with the PowerPoint slides as it makes the class liveliness, clarity, brightness, and interactivity. Besides, the use of videos in teaching language enables the students to understand it better as they can listen to the stress and rhythm pattern of the targeted language. Additionally, videos help the learners in prediction and analyzing of information of the subject matter.
When watching videos, the learners can experience the dynamics of language communication. 6 The use of Pictures in EFL Classroom The use of pictures in the classroom has become popular in today’s teaching-learning process. Pictures are used as effective visual aids especially in the EFL classroom. However, when some aids are available for the speakers, the presentation becomes so easy. The use of PowerPoint to facilitate presentation has become popular in today’s world. The teachers are using multimedia projectors and the computers to present lecturers in terms of PowerPoint slides hence making the class lively. The main points are kept in bullet form to make it easy for the presenters to undertake their presentation effectively. Using PowerPoint in presenting increases the confidence of the presenters as well as reducing his or her nervousness (Kaswa, 2015).
It is believed that the music will make the learners more comfortable while speaking as they can evoke a positive emotion. 9 The use of audio-visual aids to make class dynamic Audio-visual aids have a great impact on the teachers as they can bring significant changes in the classroom settings as well as assisting them in the teaching process. Using audio-visual aids enables the teachers to present their teaching both verbal and visual hence making the learners more attentive in the lesson. The use of audio-visual aids in the classroom brings a strong correlation between the verbal and non- verbal communication. For instance, there are some abstract things which a teacher can have difficulties while explaining to them verbally. 11 The use of songs in designing activity Songs are very useful when designing activities in the classroom setting.
The teachers can use songs for teaching almost all language skills. In most cases, the songs are applicable in the listening activities as the teachers can use them to facilitate the same. The use of songs draws the attention of the students hence making them more attentive to the lesson more than when other materials are used. More vocabulary and exposure to the students acquired when teachers use songs. The use of the audio-visual aids, therefore, motivates students in the reading skills hence assisting them to improve their communication and academics. For instance, the use of projectors, pictures and videos can assist the learners in understanding abstract ideas of the text. It is believed that the use of visual aids creates an authentic communication between the reader and the text (Yunus et al, 2013).
Therefore, visual aids make the process of reading faster and active. The readers are able to concentrate on the reading when visual aids are applied in the teaching-learning process. Therefore, the visual aids provide support to students in improving their communication skills. According to Cakir (2006), the use of videos in the classroom setting facilitates effective speaking and presentation skills. He claimed that viewing of the video actively by the learners increases their satisfaction and enjoyment as they focus their attention on the main theme of the video. It is important for the teachers to write some questions to the students concerning the video in order to force the students to concentrate. The student can be write down the answer to the questions while viewing the video or answer them orally after viewing it.
In the early teaching-learning process, listening skills were not taken with importance hence bringing challenges to the learners in future. However, in the recent process, this skill has been taken with a lot of importance. Due to the advancement of the technology, the task of teaching the listening skills has become so easy for teachers. The availability of audio-visual aids makes the students become more exposed to the native language. The technology enables the teachers to download listening materials from the internet base on the requirement of their learners within a very short time. 17 The use of audio-visual aids to teach vocabulary The use of vocabulary is one of important part in the language teaching. When one needs to communicate with the other, it is, therefore, important to be knowledgeable about the target language.
Teachers should, therefore, be keen when teaching vocabulary in the classroom. For the learners to understand more on the vocabulary, the teaching should be presented in a certain context for easy incorporation of them in communication. The use of audio-visual aids is one of the best resources used by the teachers in teaching vocabulary. Some factors have to be considered before a certain audio-visual material can be used in the classroom setting. If the teacher does not select the material or the equipment to be used as audio or visual material wisely, then the main aim of using the material will not be achieved. Another challenge faced during the use of audio-visual aids is that some language level of the audio-visual materials may not be appropriate to some learners.
As the result of this, the learners feel that the class is boring due to the fact that the level of language being used is very high for them to understand. Due to poor selection of audio-visual materials, the material may not be relating to the topic being taught hence bringing complications and confusion to the students which a long lead to failure in their academic performance (Cengizha, 2011). Teaching and entertainment. Another function established on the use of audio-visual aids is they help in making learning permanently (Subar, 2012). This is evident as these audio-visual aids have a great influence on performance in terms of vividness and learning. Moreover, it is believed that audio-visual aids attract the attentiveness of the students in the classroom.
Therefore, audio-visual aids increase the student’s interest and involvement in the classroom activities. Instructive movies have been utilized as a part of classrooms as a contrasting option to other educating strategies (Rasual et al, 2011). As indicated by Rasual et al (2011), numerous instructive movies appeared in schools are a piece of long arrangement, for instance, films exhibiting geographic standards and examinations have a tendency to be rambling, with a scene dedicated to a particular analysis or guideline. Mutar (2009) brings up that one of the standards of varying media helps is that for successful instructing to occur, a great strategy must b embraced by the educator. The educator of topography is constantly allowed to pick effective varying media helps in the classroom.
Varying media helps ought to have particular instructive qualities and should help in the acknowledgment of wanted learning targets (Mutar, 2009). By varying media helps, typically mean the most current or the most as of late utilized of these strategies. Varying media materials are those that include the feeling of vision and in addition hearing, for example, TV, film projector, and film strips. In this case, the instructive film is a film or motion picture who’s predesign is to teach (Yunus et al, 2013). TV, radio, and movies are considered as part of audio-visual aids though not used in schools but are used at home. Educating on TV is an old thought that has been spruced up for the 1990s. The visual aids such as pictures, poster, and videos help the learners a lot in fulfilling their objectives.
Guideline process happens so that to satisfy certain particular objectives and goals. This could be accomplished by utilizing diverse showing strategies, methods together with a few visual learning helps. Distinctive kinds of instructing and learning forms request diverse sorts of visual learning helps. Some are valuable in showing abilities, exhibiting certainties, indicating a relationship or changing conduct or states of mind, while others are more compelling in giving background data condensing a unit of work. The present research gave experiences on students‟ observation and sentiments on the utilization of varying media materials and assets. In any case, it is likewise imperative to consider EFL instructors’ feelings, recognitions, encounters, disappointments, and achievement while utilizing varying media assets (Pongsapn, 2013). The discoveries of the investigation give bits of knowledge on EFL students‟ way to deal with utilizing innovative guides, that EFL reading material with mechanical guides is frequently seen to be a motivation and to give inspiration in classroom direction.
Be that as it may, a nearby examination of classroom showing materials and assets reveal numerous issues in EFL educating and learning settings. Arora, (2013) examined the improvement of understudies with the utilization of varying media helps with finish virtual learning and their effect. Additionally, the survey design determines and reports the way things are. The descriptive research method is very advantageous and effective way of collecting data from a large sample of the population due to its cheapest and faster way of collecting data. The researcher chooses this method since it is just a matter of asking the respondents about their day to day tasks rather than spending weeks with them like in case of observation method (Mukul, 2011). Additionally, this method ensures that the respondents' privacy and confidentiality are maintained.
The researcher believed that this research design will be appropriate in answering the questions to the research. The research was keen to ensure gender sensitivity during the selection of the sample from the stratum. As for the teachers, the selection was the same where four teachers were selected from each school to be participants in the research project. 4 Data collection instruments Questionnaires were used in this research project as the data collection method. Therefore, each student and a teacher were given some set of questions to answer concerning the research study. The researcher set the 21 questions to the questionnaire which will aid in collecting the required data. 6 Data analysis Data analysis refers to the process of examining what has been collected in the survey or experience and then making the deductions and inferences (Kombo & Tromp, 2006).
It can also be defined as different procedures and activities that the researcher can administer to the database for the purposes of drawing conclusions and making decisions regarding the data collected from the field. Large quantities of data are summarized, categorized and rearranged in a more orderly manner. In this research, raw material obtained from the questionnaires were edited, summarized and classified in tables for further analysis. Descriptive methods such as mean, frequency, and percentages were used to analyze the data derived from the questionnaires. Impact of Audiovisual aids on students at university level. Altius Shodh Journal of Management & commerce. Ashaver, D. , & Igyuve, S. M. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 5(4), 67-72. Cengizhan, S. Effective use of instructional materials and technologies in teacher training: expectations and opinions of teacher candidates.
International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(2), 641-662. Jadal, M. Proposal and thesis writing: An introduction. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 5, 814-30. Mathew, N. G. , & Alidmat, A. Research methodology. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Mutar, S. S. Rasul, S. , Bukhsh, Q. , & Batool, S. A study to analyze the effectiveness of audio visual aids in teaching learning process at uvniversity level. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, 78-81. The audio-visual aids in English teaching. In National Conference on Developing Scenario in Applied Science and Communicative English. Yunus, M. M. , Salehi, H. The study is purely for academic and you are requested to follow the instructions given. PART A: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA In this section please tick (√) where appropriate or fill the gap provided 1. Gender Male [ ] Female [ ] 2. What is the name of your School? Please specify ………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.
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