SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION IN UNITED KINGDOM

Document Type:Dissertation

Subject Area:Engineering

Document 1

The underperformance of the construction industry in consideration of the key themes of sustainable construction results to blames on the construction industry. A tool to promote workability of all the frameworks to implement and manage sustainability concept in construction industries is needed. This research aims at explaining the sustainable construction as an issue in the construction industry. To achieve this, sustainability issues both at the strategic and performance levels are explored about the guiding aspects within the construction industry. Also, to better understand sustainable construction, various concepts such as sustainable development and corporate sustainability concept need to be understood. The existing frameworks which create an understanding of sustainability about strategic and management issues need to be explored. KEYWORDS Sustainable, construction, strategic issues, assessment tool, management ABBREVIATIONS/ ACRONYMS BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method BSI British Standards Institution CEEQUAL Civil Engineering Environmental Quality Assessment and Award Scheme CIOB Chartered Institute of Building DTI Department of Trade and Industry EcoHomes Environmental Rating for Homes ICT Information and Communication Technology ISO International Organisation for Standardisation LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design MaSC Managing Sustainable Companies RCS Raynesway Construction Southern SIGMA Sustainability – Integrated Guidelines for Management SMEs Small Medium Enterprises SPeAR Sustainable Project Appraisal Routine TNS The Natural Step UK United Kingdom Table of Contents CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 5 1. BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH 6 1. SCOPE AND JUSTIFICATION OF RESEARCH 9 1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 13 1. Objectives of the Research 14 1. THESIS STRUCTURE 14 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 2. INTRODUCTION 15 2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 15 2. SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION 17 2. DEFINITIONS OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION 19 2. PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION 22 2.

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KEY SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION ISSUES 23 2. FRAMEWORKS FOR MANAGING SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES 24 2. THE NATURAL STEP (TNS) 24 2. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 32 3. TRIANGULATION 33 3. ADOPETED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 34 3. TOOLS AND METHODS USED 35 CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 40 4. INTRODUCTION 40 4. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FURTHER WORK 50 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 52 References 54 Appendices. Consultation Inquiries and Responses (Appendix A) 60 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION Sustainable construction is among the major issues in the construction industry. The topic is being researched as it is thought to be a complex concept in the achievement of sustainability in the industry. The research is based on a strategic company level as well as operational project level which is the best for integrating the sustainability issues. Sustainable development refers to the development that qualifies for the present needs without challenging the ability of the future generations to meet their set goals and needs.

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It, therefore, stresses on the close connection of environmental, economic and social goals which are significant for the achievement of equity among people (Montabon, Mark and Zhaohui 2016) Many view sustainable development as hard to accomplish hence advocates for well-set strategies from the government, businesses and the local authorities. Following this, strategies and action plans have been published by various national governments on the sustainable development. For example, the UK government owns, ‘This Common Inheritance' which is a white paper on environment and which will assist it in the achievement of the sustainable development. Subsequently, for sustainable construction, the UK has developed various strategies to replace the initial one which worked on only the environment (Ogunbiyi, Jack Steven and Adebay 2014). To attain this, Baumgartner, Rupert and Romana (2017) suggest that sustainable development should be geared towards improving the environment as well as the construction industry in general.

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With sustainable construction industry, the economy develops which impacts on the quality of life demanded by the citizens. For instance, any economy involves production and processing activities which impacts on the environment by causing air pollution, water pollution and loss of agricultural land. Similarly, as Baumgartner, Rupert and Romana (2017) write, construction process affects the environment as it uses 25% of wood from forest trees, 16 % of water loss with a high amount of waste generated and energy used. It should be noted that the construction industry forms a percentage of the GNP thus providing opportunities to the people willing to work in the industries. According to Dong et al. many construction workers die yearly due to accidents and work-related illnesses. Likewise, transportation of the construction materials pollutes the environment by producing carbon dioxide among other pollutants which results to global warming.

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Therefore, the construction industry is the best in demonstrating sustainable development since the profit margins and the competition are considered (Montabon, Mark and Zhaohui, 2016). Sustainable construction as applied to the sustainable development enhances equal consideration of social, environmental and economic issues considered in the construction projects. The role of various contractors in delivering value to the various projects is challenging hence the research on sustainable construction can enhance the role of the contractors in the construction industry. Instead of relying on the drafted government policies, industries can work on their own to achieving sustainability in the construction activities hence a requirement on a deeper understanding of the sustainable construction. Various industry pressures, as well as the government initiative and legislative, forces all the companies and industries in developing broad corporate sustainability policies and practices to achieve the highest productivity from each industry.

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There is an emergence of the increasing demand by the clients for products from the construction industries without damage to the environment. Also, the need for the use of technologies in increasing productivity and efficiency of the workers can only be responded by studying the sustainable construction in detail. Construction companies underperform in achieving the key themes of sustainable construction leading to blames on the industrial sector for lack of responsibly taking care of the weaknesses as well as the successes of the industry. Sustainable construction scope develops tools aimed at implementing, managing and integrating sustainability concerns to promote development in the construction industry. For easier application of the sustainability concept in the construction industry, concepts such as sustainable development, sustainable construction as well as issues relating to barriers, benefits and drivers for achieving corporate sustainability as held by Montabon, Mark and Zhaohui (2016) must be understood.

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The existing management theories require to be examined to establish critical factors under management issues defining sustainable construction. Ideally, construction sector should contribute to the efforts being made towards solving the environmental and sustainability concern. The sustainable construction commitment relates to ethical resourcing, facilitating productive workforce, sustainability, client leadership and a quality design which meets the needs and the objectives of the stakeholders. The sustainable construction strategy identifies the best way of meeting the objectives as well as achieving optimal balance of risk, control and financial support to a particular construction project. UK strategies on the best construction procurement by producing the project outline and working towards production of an output based specification. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES As noted in the introduction, background and the justification of the research, the research aims at discussing sustainable relative to construction industry.

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The aim of the Research In general, the research is aimed at promoting knowledge of improving sustainability in the construction industries. Chapter Two contains the reviews of related works in the subject areas. It describes the novelty of sustainable construction research in the context of related and previous work. Chapter Three reviews a range of research methodology and outlines their weakness and strength. It also describes those adopted for the sustainable research project on construction. Chapter Four presents the research undertaken to meet the aim and objectives and associated task breakdown. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable development as a broad and complex concept has been studied, understood, analyzed and adopted in many contexts. The various studies and interpretations give different definitions which are directly or indirectly referring to the concept of the sustainable development.

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In general, Sampford (2015) states that sustainable development can be dated in 1987 during the world commission on environmental development. It is at this period that the term was coined to refer to development that meets the needs of the current situation without compromising the foreseeable ability of meeting the needs. Schröpfer, Joe and Esra (2017) supported an agreement to launch the sustainable development goals (SDGs) that could be used for pursuing focused, planned and consistent actions and plans towards sustainable development. This is very little considering the high costs of living regarding economic demands such as food production and consumption. Similarly, the environmental limitations such as soil resources, water and energy make life more difficult in the rural areas. Comparably, most scholars major their studies of sustainable development on the environment where they derive the various principles which promote concepts such as the centrality of human beings to the concerns of sustainable development as explained by Angelakoglou and Gaidajis (2015).

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Apart from the application of the SDGs in the achievement of the sustainable development, researchers have adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which demonstrates how people come together in addressing the challenges facing them in various sectors including that of construction. SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION Relatively, sustainable construction is incorporated into the broader concept of sustainable development to indicate its role among the people and the cities that adopt it. Ideally, the discussion on sustainable construction is focused at efficiency and efficient construction methods, availability of technology, use of materials and other resources which cannot challenge the health of the environment, workers and the current as well as the future generation. Scholars identify and acknowledge aspects of sustainable construction which includes people, planet and profit. Significantly, the needs of people such as local workers and communities should be met by construction industries.

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The planet is considered to protect it from the impacts of emissions and waste with the aim of enhancing it and using the natural resources efficiently. For-profit realization within the construction sector, resources which include energy, materials, water and labor must be efficiently used. Among them is the improved technology and innovation which offered benefits in line to increased speed of construction, better delivery of goods and services and enhanced cost saving as enumerated by Alwan, Jones and Holgate (2017). Additionally, the funding bodies emphasized on the need for sustainable development hence encouraged and supported the sustainable construction among the industries. Regarding activities on the construction site, some practices within the environment requires solution as reported by the scholars. Among them includes waste management, water and energy consumption as well as ecosystem protection.

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DEFINITIONS OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION Literature review on this area gives many definitions of sustainable construction. The above definition was noted inadequate as it does not capture all the aspects including social, economic and environmental sustainability as advocated by the construction sectors. Another definition was offered by construction Excellence which viewed sustainable construction as “the application of sustainable development in the construction industries” and presents sustainable development as directed towards improving the lives of everyone both at present and in future. As affirmed by Ogunbiyi, Jack Steven and Adebay (2014), sustainable construction ensures improved life through: • Recognition of social development • Adoption of economic growth and employment • Protection of the ecosystem and its inhabitants • Efficient use of natural resources Ideally, the definition of sustainable construction integrates economic, environmental and social dimension despite the context referred to.

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For example in the UK, sustainable construction is taken as an objective of the outlined strategies which promotes awareness and understanding to the citizens as cited by Alwan, Jones and Holgate (2017). The awareness created through trades is viewed as not enough hence the need for raising sustainable development through construction industry. Sustainable construction should ensure proper waste disposal and management as well as prudent use of water, material, energy and land which are the general construction resources. Economically, sustainable construction should ensure financial affordability, enhance competitiveness, sustain supply chain management, create employment opportunities and adopt full cost accounting (Campbell and Walter 2017). Sustainable construction aims at constructing durable, functional and quality structure. Environmentally, sustainable construction minimizes wastage of resources maximizes the recycling of resources, protects environment by producing environmental friendly products and enhances quality environment as discussed by Angelakoglou and Gaidajis (2015).

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It ensures environmental loadings such as solid waste, liquid waste and airborne emissions are reduced and improves indoor environmental quality. Environmental sustainability according to scholars ensures minimal polluting emissions, creates habitat and improves the environment, protects ecosystem through good construction practices and supervision, minimizes waste and prevents noise by good management of sites. Researchers indicate that good use of natural resources means improved energy and efficient use of resources. Water conservation, reduction of energy consumption and waste minimization and waste management are among the key issues that can be easily attained under environmental sustainability as identified by Ofori, Clinton and Kwame (2015). FRAMEWORKS FOR MANAGING SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES From the numerous studies in the subject area, it is clear that sustainability requires new strategic initiatives which includes corporate citizenship. To achieve sustainable management practice, McArthur (2015) confirms that the existing frameworks are combined with new management systems.

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Also, it integrates other sustainability frameworks which facilitate management. Contrariwise, TNS challenges sustainability especially in the construction industry as it lacks definitive implementation outline as noted by McArthur (2015). This is catalyzed by lack of enough information needed in making decisions on sustainability. Literature review on TNS framework clearly shows the little materials studied in the area hence a challenge to decision making. The lack of experts ready to adopt the TNS framework makes it limited in the attainment of sustainability, particularly in the construction industry. Implementation of the framework is simply unsustainable, hence not highly used in the construction industry as acknowledged by McArthur (2015). THE Managing Sustainable Companies (MaSC) The MaSC framework was funded by DTI as indicated by the related works. According to researchers, MaSC framework was developed to cater the needs of the construction industry.

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As shown by McArthur (2015), the framework is a simplified one hence used in carrying various activities within the construction industry. The processes and the series of activities which helps construction companies attain sustainability are implemented by this framework. It is at this level where supply chains linking the construction sector are long and intertwined challenging the assessment of the results of various materials procedures and components. Scholars in this area have reported that the building is created with shorter time frames at the microeconomic level. This is to respond to the demand of derived commodities dominated by electronic, mechanical and electrical equipment. Researchers various gives examples of tools under economic sustainability as illustrated by Murtagh, Aeli and Richard (2016). Some of these includes “Network Whole Life Cost Model” is aids the maintenance strategy and planning in an industry.

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• Sustainable Project Appraisal Routine (SpeAR) quickly reviews the sustainability of projects, plans, products and organizations (Murtagh, Aeli and Richard 2016) • Civil Engineering Environmental Quality Assessment and Award Scheme (CEEQUAL) which evaluates the environmental quality of civil engineering projects (Murtagh, Aeli and Richard, 2016). SOCIAL ASPECT OF SUSTAINABILITY Due to complexity of the social aspect of sustainability, the tools needed in the construction industry are limited. Socially, construction industry is described by Almahmoud and Hemanta (2015) as a “People businesses” because of its trust on the knowledge of Sustainable Construction. Nonetheless, construction industry is best known for providing habitat for people. This provides shelter which is a basic need for everyone. The lack of clear defined assessment tools under the social aspect of sustainability further challenges sustainable construction. SUMMARY The chapter has provided related work on sustainable construction with connection to the major concepts such as sustainable development.

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It is not exhaustive since the concept itself is complex and relates to various broad concepts. The chapter has emphasized on tools and frameworks for sustainability relative to the social, economic and environmental aspects. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. This part gives a brief discussion of these research approaches. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative study can be described as the inquiry into human or a social challenge, grounded in testing a theory or hypothesis comprised of parameters, measured with numbers, as well as evaluated with statistical process to find out whether the theory or hypothesis hold true (Bryman, 2017). It is objective in nature. From the viewpoint of McCusker and Gunaydin, (2015), quantitative research is focused on large-scale surveys and attitudes instead of small-scale surveys and behavior. Survey, quasi-experiments and experiments are the three kinds of quantitative research (Barnham, 2015).

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The aim is nearly associated with the desire for a precise and clear statement on the identified issue. Conversely, attitudinal research is applied to instinctively analyze the outlook of a group or a person towards a certain factor, variable, attribute or an inquiry. Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault, (2015) asserts that the major ways of gathering qualitative data are case studies, direct observation, focus groups and individual interviews. There are many disadvantages and advantages intricate in utilizing a qualitative research approach. Among merits are, it offers a great sympathetic of the topic under research, produces awesome detailed information with few people and enables in-depth study. Figure 3. Different Circumstances for Research Strategies (Vaioleti, 2016) 3. TOOLS AND METHODS USED This part describes the general research methods such as case study, archival analysis, survey and RAD utilized for the work and explains the motives for applying them.

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The study shows the research segments with the research tasks and objectives together with the numerous research methods embraced. More information concerning the research carry out and outcomes are explained in Chapter four. The individual case is selected because they represent a sample population which can be utilized to show certain facets of subject of study. Whereas several researches seek for pervasive and common factor, for case study, the intention might never be generalization however to comprehend the facts of the case with regards to its complication. Case study is time wasting alike for many qualitative techniques, therefore, data is gathered from small samples than could usually have been the situation while utilizing a quantitative method like questionnaire survey (ancock & Algozzine, 2016). The key merits of the case study comprise deeper vision into the phenomena for the study and richness of data.

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According to the research of Dadhich et al. Nevertheless, the major flaw is the charge involved (see Appendix C for records) Figure 3. Kinds of Interviews (Stuckey, 2013) Interviews of face-to-face: This type of interviews was applied at different levels of the study to confirm earlier acknowledged aspect from literature reviews as well as elicit modern sources of data. Particularly to test the questionnaire produced, approve previously known problems from reviewed literature and provoke new data and create system design necessities. The purpose for the selection of approach was due to the idea that it is highly appropriate for gathering detailed and comprehensive information from a small population. Likewise, it enables maximum contribution of the interviewees and unrestricted flow of information (see Appendix C). It enables faster growth of application software that is take on through many iterative levels.

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Figure 3. RAD utilizing Iterative Prototype (according to Wen, Smith, & Wei, 2016) CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 4. INTRODUCTION This section explains the investigation carried out to achieve the objectives and aim of an engineering development and mentions the major outcomes of the study. THE UK GOVERNMENT APPROACH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The primary level of the study (first objective) examined the idea of sustainable development as well as the United Kingdom planned approach. Grounded on the idea that sustainability is the value idea reinforced by individual ideals and aspirations, it was imperious to seizure the industry’s broader engagement, insight and understanding of the notion. For the information to represent the industry as well as to make sure that large, medium and small organizations were epitomized discriminate sampling was applied. The construction companies in the UK were approached during the study of Dadhich et al.

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Dadhich et al. claimed that sustainability aspect or associated events in their companies were originally approached through email to notify them concerning the content and context about the interview. The aim of the research was to recognize critical issues for effective management, integration and sustainability matters implementation at strategic stage. The second portion collated case studies from effective firms to create variables for successful management, integration and implementation of sustainability matters at the deliberate level. Insufficiency of present framework Many of the present contexts concentrated majorly on redesign process however very little concern on varying the dominant attention set as well as behavior form of the workers via cultural transformation initiatives and enlightening administrative learning measurements to encirclement sustainability at the principal of their daily choice making. Complication is an essential variable which has be put into consideration.

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The industry of construction is presently passing through several changes likewise there are now several inventiveness that construction corporations should address. • Concentrate on giving symptoms as well not deeper roots of the delinquent. • Many change managing efforts create about compliance instead of commitment. • Failure to generate short-term successes. Circumstances for effective change management There exist lack of one-size turns formula for transformation. Nevertheless, according to (Van der Voet, 2014), there are many major stages for successful change fundamentals which has to be personalized to the exclusive nature of every organization for change of sustainability management inventiveness to prosper. This deliberates effect of research on business promoter and the insinuation for a broader construction company. The section delivers acute appraisal of recommendations, research besides additional effort. RESEARCH FINDINGS Preceding chapter offered an undertaken research plus key results which similarly discoursed its findings by referencing every published paper and backup documents encompassed in the appendix.

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The subsection gives a summary in brief of overall research findings. SUMMARY OF STUDY FINDINGS Sustainable growth just like any developing idea bears a lengthy history. To accomplish business buy-in with a sustainable run-through, the terms needs to align to present business perspectives and needs. Linking sustainability to resources and capital stock gives the greatest operative way of elucidating sustainable development with corporate parties. The noble understanding of an association between economic, social in addition to environmental systems is important for the practical use of sustainability. This ecological system is a requirement for social and economic activities. This provides an essential contribution, the raw material both to the social and economic system and integrates the waste engendered from consumption and production of sustainable construction. Employees and customers are part of those two highly categorized shareholders.

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This study proposed sustainability matters through stakeholders’ means that is the government and clients result in business sustainability activities that contain certain feedback in economical expressions. Although there is a collective opinion that operative reporting to stakeholders and sustainability strategy could improve competitiveness and reputation, strategic response level to sustainability plan which is equivalent to turnover level. The major findings of this case study discussions of past sustainability adopter’s agenda and evaluation of current management outlines presented in Section 4. Various vital sub-elements and elements as revealed in the study are for fruitful transformation basics that companies have to follow for successful management, integration, and implementation of sustainability schemes. The entire project of engineering development, has extensive implication and impact for the company sponsor. The company has not only successfully utilized its participation in the scheme as a promotion instrument but also bidding for deals and advertising the image in maintenance sector of the highway.

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The company is present-day famous for being in the lead of innovation and application of sustainability awareness in product design and materials, project provision process and service. The understanding of the RCS is priceless in driving organization in the direction of company sustainability. There is a closer way in which the study has operated with the RCS has to examine procedures and advance a way for the company’s sustainable construction. Tomorrow’s construction companies will be those already involved in sustainability program. With the broader acceptance of sustainability construction program, effectiveness and efficiency will be promoted for the industry. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE RESEARCH The purpose for the research is advancing an easy as well as practical tool to help the management, integration and implementation of sustainability matters at a planned level which encourages a broader idea in the company.

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This might be ambitious putting in mind the difficulty of sustainability as an idea, attribute of the industry of construction and a time frame which is limited to complete the research (Druhmann & Ashworth, 2016). RECOMMENDATIONS AND FURTHER WORK Sustainable construction is among the many concepts of sustainability. The regulatory bodies and the government should also consider the client financial restrictions in order to improve investment in the sustainable projects. Also, the government can facilitate investment in sustainable developments by removing inconsistencies in their regulations and policies. The government can also consider solving the problem that exists between the capital budget and the operational budget by regulating policies that will separate them. Recommendations for Individual Public Sector Organizations The local authorities as an example of individual public sector organization must work in unison with the government regulations, policies and legislations regarding sustainability.

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Compliance of these organizations must be compulsory so that minimum expectation for any public organization can be easily established. From chapter five, it is clear that the construction industry’s poor progress can be improved by embracing sustainability with all its surrounding aspects. Recommendations on making existing sustainability management frameworks simple and comprehensive should be adopted so as to ease construction task. This thesis has contributed to the procedural, academic and methodological bodies of knowledge. Academically, it has addressed most of the publications on the social, economic and environmental sustainability not addressed by the UK clients before. The various frameworks developed within the thesis accounts for procedural contribution. Aris, N. M. Determining critical success factor of project management practice: A conceptual framework.  Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 61-69. Almahmoud, E. Jones, P.

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Holgate, P. Strategic sustainable development in the UK construction industry, through the framework for strategic sustainable development, using Building Information Modelling.  Journal of cleaner production, 140, 349-358. Ametepey, O. Nawari, N. O. Integration of Recycled Industrial Wastes into Pavement Design and Construction for a Sustainable Future. Journal of Sustainable Development, 10(1), 9. Axon, S. International Journal of Market Research, 57(6), 837-854. Baumgartner, R. J. Rauter, R. Strategic perspectives of corporate sustainability management to develop a sustainable organization. Routledge. Campbell, C. L. Heck, W. W. D. Dadzie, J. Ohemeng-Ababio, E. Barriers to sustainable construction In the ghanaian construction industry: Consultants perspectives. Journal of Sustainable Development, 7(1), 134. Journal of, 3(10), 1711-1717. Gan, X. Zuo, J. Ye, K. Skitmore, M. Iles, D. Ryall, P. HOW CAN THE UNITED KINGDOM CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IMPLEMENT SUSTAINABLE PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES?. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ARCOM Conference, ARCOM (Vol.

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pp. The condition of rural sustainability: issues in the governance of rural space in Europe. In The reform of the CAP and rural development in Southern Europe (pp. Routledge. McArthur, J. J. IGI Global. Montabon, F, Mark, P, and Zhaohui W. Making sustainability sustainable.  Journal of Supply Chain Management (52. Murtagh, N. Petit, G. Sablayrolles, C. Yannou-Le Bris, G. Combining eco-social and environmental indicators to assess the sustainability performance of a food value chain: A case study.  Journal of Cleaner Production, 191, 135-143. Redclift, M. Sustainable development and popular participation: A framework for analysis. In Grassroots environmental action (pp. Routledge. Schröpfer, V. Taylor, S. J. Bogdan, R. DeVault, M. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. Butler, C. W. Choice of software development methodologies: Do organizational, project, and team characteristics matter?.

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IEEE Software, 33(5), 86-94. Wen, T. Research methods: triangulation. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 9(1), 74-75. Zamawe, F. C. The implication of using NVivo software in qualitative data analysis: Evidence-based reflections.

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