Tourism's Significant Adverse Impact on the Ecological Stability of Coral Reefs
These polyps belong to groups of animals called the Cnidarian that includes the sea anemones and jellyfish. Coral reefs mainly grow in warm, shallow, sunny and agitated water. For many years coral reefs have been used as a construction tool. They have been a thriving business since they are collected and sold as souvenirs in the aquarium trade. In the ecosystem, the coral reefs form one of the most productive ecosystems having provided a complex and a varied ecosystem. This may be brought by the increased human activities within the shore of the ocean. It can be noted that deliberate actions do not cause the majority of the damages on the reef. A majority of the damages caused by to the coral reefs are as a result of the human activities (McCook, Jompa & Diaz-Pulido, 2001).
The dominance of the human-dominated world is the reason for the disturbance of the coral reefs. The agricultural and chemical waste has been released to the coastal waters. By doing this, it will damage the habitat of the coral reef thus reducing the productivity of the area. The issue of unsustainable tourism has been on the verge in the coastal regions. The involved country experiences some unregulated tourism which is involved in destroying the environment. The coral reefs can be damaged through direct contact with careless swimmers in the ocean. The hotels may also be involved in destroying the habitat through discharging of untreated sewage to the ocean. In this section of the term paper, I will look into five journals that explain the human activities that affect the marine of the reefs.
In this scientific papers, I will look at their findings on the human activities that affect the ecosystem of the coral reefs. I will look at the findings of each research paper and prove how they have affected the functioning of the reefs. Anchoring Research done by four authors, Graham, Rebecca, Linda and Lianna, did research on the effect of the boat anchoring as a major contributor to the decline of the coral reefs in the coastal region. The boats cause some episodic disturbance due to the human visitation through boat anchoring. Figure 1: A map of the Crab Cove study site near Guana Island, British Virgin Islands. The report has analysed on the 50-meter vessel that was anchored for one night.
The next day the reef was analysed by divers having been mapped and assessed. The survey indicated that the anchor had damaged newly overturned, broken and scared the coral colonies. The divers used a linear point to estimate the damage caused by the vessel (Forrester, Flynn, Forrester& Jarecki, 2015). Due to human activities in urbanisation, industrialisation and coastal development, it has become one of the challenging issues on the Coral reefs. According to the journal, there have been increasing human activities along the coastal region. More than 15% of the reefs have been lost permanently which 60% have been caused by the direct human activities (Baum, Januar, Ferse & Kunzmann, 2015). For this project in Indonesia, eight coral reefs were selected to carry the investigation. The study did not involve the endangered species, but it carefully selected the site where there are both inhabited and non-inhabited islands.
From the articles, it indicates that ever-increasing human activities along the coastal lines have led to severe changes in the quality of water through pollution. This has, in turn, affected the population of the coral reef. Human trampling Another human activity highlighted in the five journal is human trampling. This is a human activity where they engage in recreation activities along the coastal ecosystem. The research is done in Brazil l where the Carol reefs are one of the prominent marine ecosystems in the country (Sarmento & Santos, 2012). and Stations (F4,20 = 11. P˂0. but not for the two factors (Sarmento & Santos, 2012). A total of765 individual of harpacticoid were analysed having identified 87% of them. The others were malformed thus making it difficult to identify the species.
Figure 6: Percentage contribution of spearfishing catches in Guam From the data above it indicated that SCUBA spearfishing has decreased over time since 1989. On the other end, snorkel has remained consistent over this time. This pattern can also be seen on the individual species. For instance, H. longiceps have decreased over time leading to SCUBA spearfishing. Disproval of thesis statement From the explanation of the episodic disturbance which is caused by the human activities through boat anchoring. It indicated that those have activities have some negative effects on the coral reefs. Figure 7: Three potential trajectories of community change The above graph shows that episodic disturbance gradually drops in response to the chronic stressors. There was some drop in the anchoring event of the reefs.
There was no concrete impact of the subsequent decline due to the causes. The authors of the articles encourage countries around the world to ensure that they have restrictions on the SCUBA spearfishing. When a ban on spearfishing has been established this may ensure that the reefs fish are sustainable (Lindfield, McIlwain & Harvey, 2014). The residents of Guan have mainly supported the ban at night of SCUBA spearfishing. Other activities that may have a positive impact include the use of SCUBA spearfishing where large fish are caught. This practice ensures that large fish are caught removing the population of the spawning biomass. They include the improvement of the sewage system and treatment of waste disposal that will reduce the level of air pollution.
All stakeholders should come together and ensure that they work together as a proactive government and reduce the levels of corruption. Trampling Figure 8: Total substrate against Stations From the above diagram, it indicates that some of the human activities assist positively in the life of coral reefs. As indicated above some of the regions have been protected from trampling. Due to the protection they have impacted positively on the marine life of coral reefs. There should much involvement of the sustainable tourist development that involves careful development and planning. This tourism should be able to bring sustainable development. There have been some initiatives to bring powerful backing that will overcome the temptation of short-term financing gain in the booming industry of tourism.
There must be some restrictions that should be put in place to ensure there is no doubt in the growth of the reefs. Conclusion Human activities along the coastal region have some to a negative effect on the living coral reefs. However, the management should be actively involved in the regulations which can curb the spearfishing. Tampering should also be regulated in some areas so that coral reefs can be protected. To protect the coral reef some measure needs to be undertaken so that they can be able to sustain themselves and bring some money to the economy through tourism. There is need to conserve water. People living along the coastal lines should ensure they use less water and wastage of water may lead to pollution of water in the oceans.
Despite some of the human activities affecting the coral reef ecosystem the above are some of the activities that can thrive this ecosystem. Individuals should engage themselves in coming up with rules and regulation that favours the coral reef ecosystem. They have come up with regulations such as banning of human activities around the coastal lines. They should come up with regulations that protect the reefs. They include coming up with regulations in stopping sewage pollution for the oceans, expand the marine protected areas so at to reverse global warming. Flynn, R. L. Forrester, L. M. Jarecki, L. J. McIlwain, J. L. Harvey, E. S. J. P. Trampling on coral reefs: tourism effects on harpacticoid copepods. Coral Reefs, 31(1), 135-146.
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