Anatomical and Physiological Muscle Comparison of Human and Cat

Document Type:Report

Subject Area:Zoology

Document 1

In this case, the objective was to study the anatomy and physiology of the cat in order to highlight any existing differences and similarities to that of a human. These set objectives of the research were achieved through two laboratory procedures: dissection and transection of a cat. Dissection is defined as the process of cutting apart or the separation of tissues for further studies in a surgical procedure while transection is defined as the cutting of tissues transversely to study its cross-sections. The aim of the experiment was to study the cat’s anatomy and physiology in comparison to the humans. The cat was used as a specimen because of its prominent muscular body which is convenient for physiological study and its application in anatomy.

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The slit was small and longitudinal and proceeded towards the lower lips. The cut was done posteriorly and stopped anteriorly in the genital area. The cut was done carefully making sure it only happened at the skin and no muscle was distorted. This is because some muscles would be distorted once it comes to contact with a sharp scalpel. The skin around the neck was then cut out followed by a horizontal cut across the chest. This liquid was to keep the cat moist and to prevent bacterial infection. The dissection and transection of the specimen begin by the uncovering of the ventral body. A scalpel was then used to expose the ventral body cavities by cutting through the abdominal muscles then to the ribs, followed by the neck and lastly to the diaphragm finally exposing the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

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With the skeletal muscles, the use of blunt dissection technique was applied to avoid distortion. A blunt forceps was used in the dissection of the superficial muscles. Pectoralis major 4. Pectoantebrachialis 5. Clavedeltoid 6. External oblique 7. Epitrochlearis 8. It insertion takes place at the scapula. To be specific, it happens on the fascia that covers the scapular muscles. Its action is to adduct the scapula and pull it posteriorly (Danforth, 2013). The deltoid muscles include the clavodeltoid that has its origins from the clavicle and insertion on the ulna. This muscle allows the flexing of the forearm. Its insertion takes place in the humerus at its proximal end. Its contraction causes the humerus to move posteriorly and dorsally. The major difference between the trapezius muscles of the cat to that of human is the fact that the human possesses one while the cat possesses three.

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The difference between the deltoid in the cats and humans is the fact that in cats, the deltoid muscle does not connect directly to its skeletal frame while in humans it does. The muscles of the forearm are six. The extensor carpi ulnaris has its origins in the humerus at its lateral epicondyle and the insertion happens on the lateral aspects of the metacarpal specifically the fifth. Its action is in the extension of the paw at the wrist (carpals) on the ulna side. The arm muscles of the cat are more developed than that of the human because the cat also uses their hands to walk, unlike humans (Danforth, 2013). The thigh and deep pelvic muscles of the cat include the piriformis that originates at the sacral and caudal vertebrae and which inserts at the femur specifically into the greater trochanter.

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Its action is the abduction of the thighs. Its action is to extend and enable the rotation of the thigh. The obturator externus has its origins at the ramus of pubis and ischium. It has its insertion at the femur trochanteric fossa and its action is to enable the thighs. Another function of the obturator externus is to enable the rotation of the thighs (Marieb & Smith, 2015). RESULTS Muscle Action Origin Insertion Comments Superficial chest muscle: 1. Acromiotrapezius 3. Spinotrapezius 4. Clavodeltoid 5. Acromiodeltoid 6. Spinoldeltoid 7. Piriformis 2. Gluteus minimus 3. Gemellus superior 4. Obturator internus 5. Gemellus inferior 6. Heredity of polydactyly in the cat. Journal of heredity. Marieb, E. N. Smith, L.

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