Annotated Bibliography The Juvenile Justice System

Document Type:Annotated Bibliography

Subject Area:Criminology

Document 1

Retrieved 1 May 2018, from https://www. huffingtonpost. com/cara-h-drinan/juvenile-justice-in-ameri_b_7054254. html The standards that govern the Criminal Justice System are different from those that govern the Juvenile Justice System. The distinction between the two is the system and the process. , & Champion, J.  The Juvenile Justice System: Delinquency, Processing and the Law (8th ed. , pp. Pearson. A juvenile delinquent is a young person, usually between the ages of 10 and 18 years that conducts indecent or immoral behavior or is in need of supervision or rehabilitation or violates a criminal law. Oxford University Press. The classical theory employs the idea that everyone has the free will to choose right from wrong. Thus, committing a crime is a choice out of free will. The classical theorists argued that the best way to deter criminals was to establish criminal sanctions that would make it unprofitable and uncomfortable for offenders to commit a crime.

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The classical school assumes that people are rational beings capable of choosing good and evil. Biological theory, also known as Determinism or Positivism uses science to explain a crime and focuses on the offender, not the offense. Positivists believe that social backgrounds, mental developments or other factors play a critical role in the behavior of an individual. Positivists classify offenders in three categories: those that are born with the physical characteristics to commit a crime; those whose source is based on genetic traits; and those that are defined by the function or structure of the brain. They argue that poverty, health, culture, and employment are among the factors that affect youth and adult criminal offenders. However, the youth's specific ages are given more attention than an adult because it is the determining factor for young teenagers.

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Cognitive processes and social learning influence people’s perceptions of the world/ environment which determine their potential to commit a crime. Muller, R.  Rehabilitation Benefits Young Offenders.  Psychology Today. Retrieved 1 May 2018, from https://www. Juvenile Justice: Prevention & Early Intervention.  Youth. gov. Retrieved 1 May 2018, from https://youth. gov/youth-topics/juvenile-justice/prevention-and-early-intervention The pipeline of cradle to prison is bitter and costly for parents who have children in the Juvenile Justice System. com/crime/school-violence/parens-patriae/ Parens patriae means ‘parent of the Country'. It originated in the 12th century when the King of England applied this concept in the juvenile courts so as to be in charge of or responsible for all matters involving the juvenile children. The concept establishes that the state has the authority to act in the best interest of a child.

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In the United States, parens patriae recognized that parents had the responsibility to ensure the physical, educational and emotional well-being of the child. In the case where the parent/s are unable or unwilling to meet the needs of the child, the Juvenile court has the right to intervene and take the best possible actions that guarantee the care and protection of the child. If he arrests the juvenile, the police officer must inform the parents of the arrest and the rights of the juvenile. The juvenile has the right to two calls; to a lawyer and parent. If they cannot afford one, a juvenile lawyer will be availed for him. The juvenile should be presented before a probation officer within 24 hours of his arrest who then advise the juvenile of his rights against self-incrimination or any information he discloses would be used by the prosecution.

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