Counselling Theories case study

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Social Work

Document 1

Psychodynamics is a theory that is used in counseling to help determine instincts and the effects that they have on an individual (Basham et al. Personal centered therapy is another theory used in counseling that allows the patient to direct the conversation and discuss the issues affecting them without the counselor steering the conversation (Carruth & Field, 2016). These are the theories that the paper focuses on based on the case study presented. Person-centered therapy presents a form of treatment used by counselors whereby conversations are carried out in a non-directive manner (Joseph & Murphy, 2015). This theory allows the client to direct the whole discussion, thus deciding what the discussion will cover. It is a theory built on trust and comfortability and therefore works in helping clients open about matters than on different occasions would be very hard to make the client expose such issues (Joseph & Murphy, 2015). This theory is dependent on unconditional positive regard as the key principle that guides the conversation between client and counselor (Zoffmann et al. This principle is based on accepting the client as they are rather than trying to change the individual. The client-centered theory can be applied in Maya’s case to help her talk about her feelings regarding the accident and without pushing and also to discuss the childhood issue of losing her father through a car accident. The other theory that can be incorporated in treatment concerning counseling where Maya is concerned is the psychodynamic theory. The psychodynamic theory focuses on both conscious and unconscious processes that affect individual thinking and behaviour (Guntrip, 2018).

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This theory also looks into personal experiences believes and desires to determine how they affect behavior. In addition, psychodynamics focuses on childhood experiences as it points out, they define the personality of an individual (London, 2014). According to the case presented on Maya, she has anxiety issues about driving due to the fact that she was involved in an accident. However, the problem is seen to be deep-rooted in her childhood experiences as she lost her father through a car accident when she was eight years old. Psychodynamics theory can, therefore, be applied to help determine the conscious and unconscious factors affecting a patient (Gabbard, 2014). In this case, the theory can be applied to bring out the causes of anxiety for Maya regarding driving, through looking into her childhood as well as the issue caused by the accident that occurred a year ago.

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Theoretic perspective Person-centered theory can in this case used to understand Maya's case through various strategies. Since the policy is based on unconditional positive regard, it can help understand the issues that the client is facing by incorporation of humanity. The theory focuses on the provision of support irrespective of the problems that a client is facing, thus providing unconditional support (Kim, 2018). The counselor can, therefore, get to the root of the issue by encouraging Maya to be genuine about her feelings and the issues that in her opinion are causing negative thoughts on driving. Empath is another aspect of person-centered therapy that can be applied to help understand a client better. In this form of treatment, the counselor views the individual seeking treatment as an equal participant to the road towards recovery thus making them a partner in the process (Palstam et al.

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The therapist is also expected to show empathy towards the client to foster a positive relationship that encourages openness. This can be achieved through incorporation of the Rogerian approach that allows clients to reveal inner parts of themselves and work through their issues through individual development and growth. This is a theory that looks into the relationship between a particular object and individual behavior (Klin & Jones, 2018). In this area, the response is seen to be a result of mental forces pursuing in opposite directions. The theory can, therefore, help a counselor understand their patient better as it helps in identifying the forces causing the problem. The theory also relates personality, and behavioral traits to relativity shown and thus can help understand clients better (Rutan, Stone, & Shay, 2014). The theory can be used to relate Cars to accidents.

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In the ego defense mechanism, the focus is on the dynamic process that cause anxiety and defense mechanisms applied by individuals (Gabbard, 2014). In this case, the defense mechanism is seen to be introjection; whereby Maya projects her childhood experience and the road accident she was involved in making the roads seem unsafe. Through identification of defense mechanism incorporated the therapist can understand a client better and thus come up with long-lasting solutions (Gabbard, 2014). The ego and limitation section of Freud’s psychodynamic theory covers impulse in relation to inhibitors. The ego factor is determined by both conscious and unconscious impulses (Aponte, & Kissil, 2016). In this treatment mechanism, the therapist must allow Maya to work through her anxiety problem at her own pace as she slowly understands the issues causing the problem through active listening.

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Psychodynamic strategies, on the other hand, involve the direct involvement of the therapist where they guide the client towards the issues that need to be tackled (Petraglia, Bhatia, & Drapeau, 2017). While treating Maya using psychodynamic theory, the therapist has to look at factors that are brought about by the conscious and unconscious part of the brain. In this case, the therapist guides the patient along the topics that bring out issues brought about by the Ego, Id, and superego (Rutan, Stone, & Shay, 2014). The counsellor, therefore, steers the conversation unlike in person-centered therapy where the client guides the discussion. The therapy methods used in Maya’s case scenario also bring out these similarities as they both focus on personal development to help her deal with the issue of anxiety. Evaluation The best method of treatment in this for Maya, in this case, is psychodynamics.

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This is because it uses various aspects to help determine the issues affecting the client. This method is appropriate for Maya as it incorporates an interactive approach that defines not only the causes of the underlying impulses but also identifies the defense mechanisms that are preventing her from overcoming the anxiety, she experiences making her unable to drive a car. This theory is preferable as the client-centered therapy is based on self-actualization and could take a longer period for the client to overcome her anxiety. J. Kissil, K. Eds.  The person of the therapist training model: Mastering the use of self. Routledge.  Inside out and outside in: Psychodynamic clinical theory and psychopathology in contemporary multicultural contexts. Rowman & Littlefield. Carruth, E. Field, T. Person-Centered Approaches: Providing Social and Emotional Support for Adult Learners.

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 Psychodynamic psychiatry in clinical practice. American Psychiatric Pub. Guntrip, H. Psychoanalytic theory, therapy, and the self. Routledge. Routledge. Loewenberg, P.  Decoding the past: The psycho-historical approach. Routledge. London, P.  Handbook of psychodynamic approaches to psychopathology. Guilford Publications. Nelson, K. Art Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach: A Method for Breaking Down Creative Resistance with Dementia Patients.  Art Therapy. Drapeau, M. Ten principles to guide psychodynamic technique with defense mechanisms: An examination of theory, research, and clinical implications.  J Psychol Psychother, 7(288), 2161-0487. Rutan, J. S. Schmolke, M. Amering, M. Svettini, A. Recovery, Empowerment, and Person Centeredness. In Person-Centered Psychiatry (pp. Storbækken, S. Graue, M. Rasmussen, B. Wahl, A. Kirkevold, M.

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