Eukaryotic Cells essay

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Biology

Document 1

A good example of prokaryotic cells, which have the simplest structure, is bacteria. These cells are usually found in humans and animals. Another distinguishing feature between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells have various organelles which have membranes. Furthermore, eukaryotic cells are enclosed in a membrane. The nucleus is the region of the cell that contains DNA, which is essential to the existence of life. The nucleolus lacks a membrane even though it holds itself together. The nucleolus contains ribosomes that are created by the mixture of proteins and the RNA. The proteins come from the cytoplasm, which exists outside the nucleus of the cell. The nucleus has pores in its envelope, which enable the proteins to travel to the nucleolus, through the chromatin.

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In the nucleolus, the biosynthesis of the ribosomal RNA and the production of ribosomes occurs (Khan Academy, 2018). Lipids and steroids are fat-based molecules that perform the function of forming membrane structure, storage of energy, and communication, that is, steroids act as hormones in some cases (Khan Academy, 2018). The third organelle is the Golgi body or the Golgi apparatus. This organelle performs the function of packing proteins from rough endoplasmic reticulum to the vesicles that are bound in the membrane. These vesicles can either fuse with or not fuse with the lipid layer. When they fuse, they cause their content to become part of the cell. Furthermore, it shields the cell against the reactive oxygen specie molecules that can have damaging effects to the cell in the absence of a shield.

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The reactive oxygen species are molecules created as a result of cellular metabolism, radiation, and drugs. They can form oxidative stress within the cell through their reaction with the DNA (Khan Academy, 2018). Thus, they usually damage the DNA and lipid-based molecules of the cell. Mitochondria is also an organelle of the cell, which is the region of the cell that is responsible for respiration. Cytoskeleton facilitates cell movement besides ensuring stability within the cell. The key components of the cytoskeleton are the microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. In addition, there is microtubules, which are small tubes that are formed by the protein tubulin. They are usually found in the flagella and cilia and they aid in the movement of the cell.

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In addition, they help in providing pathways for the movement of secretory vesicles within the cell. For instance, mitochondria manufactures energy that is needed by other organelles to function (Scitable, 2014). The DNA contains the information that is necessary for the building of cellular proteins. The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane that partitions the DNA from the protein synthesis machinery of the cell. The membrane has tiny pores that selectively permit macromolecules to enter or leave the cell nucleus. This separation of the DNA from the machinery that performs protein synthesis gives eukaryotic cells a more intricate control over the protein production and the production of the RNA intermediates of these proteins. Eukaryotic Cells. Retrieved April 30, 2018 from https://www. khanacademy. org/test-prep/mcat/cells/eukaryotic-cells/a/organelles-article.

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