Impacts of Soil Erosion Degradation and Deforestation

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Geography

Document 1

Similarly, soil erosion is caused by several forces that act against soil such as wind, water, and agricultural practices. However, soil erosion is a slow process and may take many years to notice. PMF IAS, 2016). There are several types of soil erosion. Firstly water erosion that is caused by harsh rain where the raindrops impact the soil by loosening materials in oil that bonds it and hence allowing small fragments to detach. Moreover, it then carries the detached particles of dirt and deposits them elsewhere. What is more, if the land is sloppy it facilitates more soil erosion compared to flat ground. This is because of the gravity pull on the slope. Additionally, if the earth has no vegetation, it is more likely that the rain will erode the soil. Further water erosion is also classified into rill erosion, gully erosion, bank erosion. Secondly, wind erosion which is heightened when the land has no vegetation cover and has been subjected to overgrazing. Further, the wind carries coarse sand on the soil surface as it cannot be airborne causing surface creep. Therefore after wind erosion, the soil surface becomes covered in coarse fragments of debris known as desert pavement. Gillaspy, 2017) Soil erosion is caused by wind speed especially in dry areas, nature of the soil, increase of the human population, deforestation (lumbering), overgrazing of animals, defective methods of practicing agriculture, and alteration of natural drainage courses as well as wrong positioning of embankments, roads, railways, and bridges. PMF IAS, 2016). On the other hand soil degradation is the deterioration of soil caused by many underlying factors such a poor management of agronomic, industrialized as well as urban tenacities.

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Additionally, it has become a grave global environmental problem. Further, it is now intensified by the diverse climate change experienced due to global warming. It involves physical soil erosion, chemical alkalinity and salinity as well as pollution, and natural weakening of vegetal cover. In soil alkalinity and salinity, the soil is soaked in saturated with a substance with efflorescence. This is because agriculturalists depend on the vegetated land to provide food for their animals. Additionally, farmers do not regularly migrate to change their pasture unless the area is arid therefore desertification can occur at the fast rate of 3 miles per year in particular cases. What is more, the change in global climate has brought about the vast growth of deserts. For instance rainfall shortages in certain places leading to water stress in the vegetation cover.

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Ace Geography, 2017) This text shall examine the impacts of soil erosion, degradation, and desertification on the environment. This has a damaging effect for motorists and pedestrians alike. Further, this disposition of soil on paths can lead to accidents due to increased flooding when drains become blocked due to excess sediment loads of dirt. Impacts on strategic reservoirs Soil sediments tend to flow into storage reservoirs reducing storage capability and further damaging the infrastructure. For instance, the deposits could block the outlet valves of water reservoirs. Nutrients over-enrichment of freshwater bodies. This further leads to costly dredging that is necessary for the in affected areas. IMPACTS OF SOIL DEGRADATION Salinity and alkalinity caused by soil degradation have diverse effects on soil. Loss of Arable Land Soil degradation leads to a reduction in the number of areas that can be cultivated.

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Research shows that 40% of the world's arable land has been lost to soil depreciation caused by the use of agrochemicals and soil erosion. Additionally, cultivation becomes virtually impossible on saline soils, and the land needs to be flushed out with large quantities of irrigation water as it leaches out the salts. Drought and aridity. The UN recognizes that drought and aridity are consequences of soil degradation as plants cannot properly survive in this soil that lacks the proper mineral contents. Therefore the land is left bare and vulnerable to further erosion and degradation Increased flooding The land then becomes unable to soak up water as its degradation has brought about change in its physical composition. In simpler terms, it loses its natural ability to retain water, and hence water becomes impermeable to the soil leading to increased flooding.

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Impacts of Desertification Desertification can cause a varied number of events some of them being soil erosion by wind as well as water. For instance, the use of cropping is paramount to establish the different types and soils that are suitable for agricultural practices Surface Cover to Prevent Runoff Surface cover is one of the most fundamental ways to reduce soil erosion by preventing the impact of raindrops falling directly on the soil surface. Management across the catchment is significant when implementing runoff control procedures. Use Of GeoTextiles Geotextiles are porous materials that when used with soil can shield, filter, and drain unwanted substances. The composites have been introduced as mesh materials and geogrids also been recently established. Further, the use of these geotextiles stabilizes the soil. It is essential to educate coming generations on the importance of a forestation and the effects of deforestation.

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Conserve Energy Future, 2017) Land Repossession This involves practicing activities that are centered towards the restoration of natural organic matter and soil vitamins. This can be done by addition of plant residue and improvement of range management. Further, if the soil is sanitized, it can be restored by salt level modification. Additionally, planting of flowers, crops, and trees prevents soil erosion that leads to soil degradation. Suitable water management plans This is done in areas that are naturally dry. It involves recycling, water harvesting practices and the establishment of sound water management practices. Afforestation This is the planting of trees. Humankind should come up with a strict policy of planting two trees for every one felled. Promoting desert agriculture This involves planting and developing strains of plants that can adapt in arid and semi-arid areas.

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It is high time humanity made a change to conserve our environment. References PMF IAS. Soil Degradation -Soil Erosion - Desertification | PMF IAS. Online] Available at: https://www. pmfias. html [Accessed 4, Nov, 2017] Conserve Energy Future, (2017)Causes, Effects and Solutions of Soil Erosion. Conserve Energy Future. Com [Online]Available at:https://www. conserve-energy-future. com/causes-effects-solutions-of-soil-erosion. erosionpollution. com/ways-to-prevent-soil-erosion. html. Accessed 4 Nov 2017].

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