International Negotiation Skills Report
(2003) support this by saying that negotiation is an art and an instinctive skill that every person requires for survival. In the contemporary business world, negotiation plays a critical role in an organization’s operations. Curhan and Elfenbein (2006) say that traditionally, negotiations were being conducted to solve an issue, but the result was meant to make one party and the other party lose. The need for negotiations arises for a particular reason for a specific outcome. For instance, for international trade to take place, the foreign affairs departments of different countries need to come to negotiate about their terms of trade as well as their economic benefits. Kennedy (2004) supports this view that negotiations aim to have either party agreeing to compromise their stand and he identifies the major areas that need negotiations.
In his opinion, negotiations may take the form of solving issues in domestic relationships, international affairs, legal disputes, or industrial disputes. In a study, Olekakalns (2002) classified negotiations as a social interaction that requires negotiators to identify and implement mutually beneficial solutions for either party to feel not discriminated upon by the negotiators because of their situational and personal differences. The bottom-line, negotiation is a form of communication which aims at reuniting feuding parties. In this view, Culo and Skendrovi (2012) say communication is a two-way process during negotiations and that the parties are required to engage with one another to ensure that the negotiation process becomes successful. (2009) say, the Cs help negotiators to manage and find a way to resolve conflicts and find a lasting solution to a conflict.
Distributive and Integrative Negotiation Leigh et al. (2010) posit that negotiation consists of both integrative and distributive. Spencer (2013) defines distributive negotiation as a fixed sum of value among members, and that one party is expected to claim a more significant portion. This scenario can be explained using a buyer and a seller situation in which the buyer wants to maximize satisfaction by paying less whereas the seller wants to get more from the product. By arguing from Kennedy’s eight categories of negotiations, these are now condensed to four main phases namely; Bargaining, Debating, Proposition, and Preparation phases. Preparation Planning is the major contributing factor to differentiation because it helps an organization to determine the course of the negotiation outcome (Scacchitti and Guertin 2005).
As Lindhost (2014) posit that planning process should aim at exploring and analyzing the history of each member in a negotiation to enable negotiators to propose counter and counter-propose to end the negotiation (Peterson and Shepherd 2010). Lindhost (2014) says that negotiators need to focus on building relationships amicably. Debate Majorly, the debating step sets the tone for a negotiation. For instance, in a case where a seller of a vehicle is selling to a stranger, the most important for the seller is the profit and nothing like establishing a long-term relationship with the customer. Collaborating The collaborating type of negotiation brings about a win-win outcome for either party. Additionally, this negotiation ensures that the needs of each party are considered and ample time is taken to reach at a mutual benefit (Hocker and Wilmot 1997).
This negotiation may be exhibited by a business entity that commits themselves all of their time and energy to work collaboratively with suppliers of the raw materials to produce great merchandise. Compromising This type of negotiation produces the “I win/ lose, you win/ lose” outcomes and the parties get much less than what they had anticipated getting. Nadler et al. (2003) observed that negotiators usually follow a proactive approach and prepare themselves well before starting a negotiation. Raiffa (1982) supports this statement by saying that negotiators are rational decision-makers who take into consideration every tiniest detail to make proposals and recommendations which maximize gains. In her article, Hedges (2013) says that negotiators do not go low because they are patient with a strong decision making and predictive skills.
Majorly, negotiators can manage conflicts, misunderstanding, stress, and keeping track of events and activities. Since negotiations are sequential, negotiators apply teamwork, the anticipation of strategies and tactics (Zohar 2015; Borger 2014). Hence, based on these discussions, it is evident that negotiation skills consist of an intrinsic chunk of the human behavior. Game Theory and the Prisoner’s Dilemma Mostly, negotiations arise in any context where different parties have competing goals and priorities. According to Turocy and Stengel (2001), the Game theory is a formal study of conflict and cooperation amongst persons and that this concept provides approaches for examining, understanding, and formulating strategic tactics to a particular scenario. In other words, it is a mathematical approach that explains how people agree with one another.
d. Factors affecting Negotiation Culture and Negotiation Brett (2000) confers that culture affects negotiations by large and significant. According to Linton (1945), culture refers to the configuration of learned behaviors and outcomes whose parts are shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society to the next generation. In his work, Fjellstrom (2005) says that language, values, decision-making, and other non-verbal behaviors influence negotiations because of the differences in culture. For instance, in the Japanese culture, the use of signs and non-verbal communication is acceptable during negotiations, but this is entirely different from the American style vale and behavior of negotiating (Van Zandt 1970). With this said Ziebart et al. (2002) report that understanding the factors that are likely to affect a negotiation process is a critical tool for crafting a strategy to be followed to the negotiating style of the other party.
Gender and Trust By basing their argument on Hofstede’s five-dimensional model as well as Lewicki’s statement, Riley and McGinn (2002) says that “it does not appear that there is any single personality type or characteristic that is directly and linked to success in negotiation. ” Craver (2002) says observed that the society is biased because it regards women as emotional and illogical negotiators whereas men are assumed to be calm and logical negotiators. Pradel et al. Additionally, the theory has demonstrated that negotiation is a complex process and improving the competitiveness during negotiations depends on one’s negotiation skills. With these regards, an approach has also indicated that BATNA plays a critical role in negotiations because it helps negotiators to adapt to changes, identify their ZOPA, identify their style, and exert influence as well as take control of the process.
Moreover, the examples from this analysis show that people are confident in applying their skills in the daily lives to find solutions to their conflicting goals and wants. Thus, negotiations help people to understand and use the value of the 4Cs and identify the factors which influence them. People have essential negotiation skills which they exhibit in commercial, household, businesses, and public contexts. Interpersonal Negotiation Skills. Regents of the city of California. Borger, J. Iran and US close in on historic nuclear deal at Vienna talks. [online] The Guardian. Differences in Business Negotiations between Different Cultures. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Chebet, W. , Rotich, J. and Kurgat, A. Negotiation skills: keys to business excellence in the 21st century? European Journal of Research and Reflection in Management Sciences, 3(3).
Spring 2005. Cohen, S. Negotiating Skills for Managers. McGraw-Hill Education Coleman, R. and Fraser, C. and Skendrović, V. COMMUNICATION IN THE PROCESS OF NEGOTIATION. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University, Osijek, Croatia; World Bank, Zagreb, Croatia, 4, pp. Curhan, J. , Elfenbein, H. The impact of demographic factors on negotiation ethics. International Scientific Conference of IT and Business-Related Research, pp. El-Erian, M. Lessons from the United Airlines Debacle. [Online] Bloomberg. [Online] National Center for Biotechnology Information. Available at: https://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. Factors that influence the head office subsidiary relationship in Japan and Korea. A case study of Philips. Fox, E. The Most Important Negotiation in Your Life. [online] Harvard Business Review. In Global Negotiations, It’s All About Trust. [online] Harvard Business Review.
Available at: https://hbr. org/2012/12/in-global-negotiations-its-all-about-trust [Accessed September 30, 2018]. Hedges, K. London: Quorum Books. Hocker, J. and Wilmot, W. (1997) Collaborative Negotiation. 5, pp. Kennedy on Negotiation. Gower Publishing Ltd, Hampshire, England. Kennedy, G. The Economist: Negotiation: An A-Z Guide. London: Profile Books Ltd. Strategies and Tactics of Effective Business Negotiation. Bachelor Thesis. Kumar, R. Culture and Negotiation. ResearchGate. Negotiation Planning and Preparation in Practice. Paper presented at IACM International Association for Conflict Management. Linton, R. The Cultural Background of Personality. Journal of Personality. Mnookin, R. Alternative Dispute Resolution. Harvard Law School; Program on Negotiation. Nadler, J. , Thompson, L. and Galinsky, A. (n. d. First offers in negotiations: Determinants and effects. Olekalns, M. and Popescu, M. (n. d. Negotiation process - interpersonal communication. Commercial College, Virgil Madgearu.
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