Personal Fitness Assessment for Overweight and Obese Adults

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Physical Education

Document 1

WHO also estimated the number of obese individuals would hit 700 million people in the same time frame. The report published in 2016 by WHO showed that more than 1. 9 billion and 650 million adults were overweight and obese respectively ("Obesity and Overweight"). The adult population (individuals aged 18 years old and above) with overweight and obese issues constituted 36% and 13% respectively of the total population by 2016 according to this report. According to Desai et al. Fitness Assessment General Health Evaluation A fitness program member will share his/her medical history with a trainer before participating in a routine fitness exercise. A trainer evaluates the resting heart rate, vital sign measurements (height and weight), and the resting blood pressure. The trainer will also use a physical readiness questionnaire that will seek to record the trainee’s general health and medical condition (Warburton, Jamnik, Bredin & Gledhill, 2011).

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Appendix A provided below gives physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q). Body Composition The assessment of the body composition will help the trainer describe a variety of components that make up the body weight of the trainee such as fat, muscles, and bones. Waehner, P. (2018) proposed a three-minute step and made recommendations for people falling in the age bracket of 56-65 years old and recorded as shown in Table 1. The recorded baseline results will help to assess the improvement of health and fitness in the three-month project period for post-project implementation. Strength Endurance Testing Strength testing will help to determine the trainee’s optimum amount of force muscles can exert on any given time. On the contrary, muscle endurance testing measures time a trainee’s muscle group could contract and release before he/she feels fatigued.

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Flexibility Testing It is important to determine the flexibility of one’s joints as it helps to ascertain whether an individual has postural imbalances, motion limitations, and foot instability. A trainer could measure the flexibility of the trainee using different techniques to understand the suitable amount and type of exercise. The first approach to determining the flexibility level is a “sit-and-reach” test, which involves measuring the tightness an individual’s lower back hamstring muscles. The trainee is required to perform this test while seated on the floor with their legs fully stretched. In this case, flexibility will measure the inches one’s hands are from their feet when reaching forward. 5 to 24. 5 (Underweight) 25 to 29. 9 (Overweight) 30 ≥ (Obese) - - - Cardiovascular Endurance (three-minute step test) Excellent Good Above Average Average Below Average Poor Very Poor 60-77 86-94 97-100 103-109 111-117 119-128 131-154 Strength Endurance (Weight lifting for 5 minutes while keeping the feet flat and seated on a bench-press machine) Less than 1kg 1.

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5kg 1. 5kg and more Weak average Strong Flexibility (Sit-and Reach test (cm)) Excellent Good Above Average Below Average Poor - - Above 34 28 to 34 23 to 27 16 to 22 Below 16 Weekly Recommended Exercises The following exercise recommendation plan targets individuals with manageable obese conditions. Moderate: Dancing/stretching the legs for 30 minutes. For leg stretching, the trainee may consider lying on the back on the floor and extending legs in the opposite directions. Similarly, an individual may consider folding the legs and pushing them towards the stomach or fully stretching them forward. Light: Outdoor slow walking, squatting, breathing in-out-in-out for 15 minutes. Thursday Vigorous: Pull-ups, stationary sit-ups, rope jumping, stationary bike riding, treadmill running, or hiking for 1 hour. While this seeks to achieve an optimum overload to ensure the weight loss gains maximum benefits, the slow transition to and from overloads throughout the week aims to allow for recuperation and preventing reversibility of the training outcomes.

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Similarly, a gradual increase from moderate to vigorous activities will help the trainee to progressively gain optimum weight loss throughout the training period. Time Averagely, the total time recommended for the one and half hours daily for 5 days (Monday to Friday) of every week. The objective here is to allow the trainee to undertake other life-building engagements such as attending to his or her family and job duties and responsibilities. The ability to attend the program without skipping will demonstrate the ability of the trainee to manage his or her work-life schedules. Light exercises towards the end of the week and start of the week as the trainee gradually advances to vigorous and moderate activities aim to improve the outcomes. This is because activities such as playing music, dancing, and yoga reenergize the individual to prepare for overload activities towards mid-week.

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