Radical and Ethnic disparity in us prisons annotated bibliography

Document Type:Annotated Bibliography

Subject Area:Religion

Document 1

The chief causes and the impacts of these differences are challenging, and for that reason, they have been an issue of much academic attention. This bibliography will strive to provide an assessment of some of the best books and peer-reviewed articles covering racial disparities in the criminal justice system. I hope this literature will provide policymakers as well as the public with crucial information that will deliver to make sound decisions regarding how to mitigate this issue. Spohn, Cassia. "Racial disparities in prosecution, sentencing, and punishment. Understanding of justice demonstrated in this paper fit very well with the knowledge of justice as explained by Catholic faith because the author is determined to protest against any form of injustice that might be perpetrated by the criminal justice system.

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MacDonald, John, et al. "Decomposing racial disparities in prison and drug treatment commitments for criminal offenders in California. " The Journal of legal studies 43. MacDonald was interested in examining the features of crime, social structure as well as the criminal justice system that might be in place to account for the disparity of incarceration between the whites and nonwhite community. This journal understanding of justice fits well with the Catholic understanding of justice. Weaver, Vesla M. , Jacob S. Hacker, and Christopher Wildeman. "Detaining democracy? Criminal justice and American civic life. "Addressing racial disparities in incarceration. " The Prison Journal 91. 3_suppl (2011): 87S-101S. The article by Marc Mauer that was first written in 2011makes an analysis of the rate at which the black people are imprisoned.

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It is based on research carried out using the secondary data on the number of black people that are incarcerated each year. Racial disparity should not be used as a means of segregating but accommodating each other’s culture and behavior Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. Racial formation in the United States. Routledge, 2014. Racial formation in the USA is one of the books written by Omi and Howard Winant with the aim of describing the racial formation in the country. The book was written in 2004 it analyzes on the changing and reformation of racialism since the World War 2. The Book also analyses the tough times that the people of color while in prison with no mercy at all. Travis, Jeremy, Bruce Western, and F.

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Stevens Redburn. "The growth of incarceration in the United States: Exploring causes and consequences. The article is an analysis based on the rate of growth of the number of people that are taken to prison each annually. The paper is important to show the high level of racial discrimination of the black in the prisons contrary to the requirement of showing mercy and justice. Binswanger, Ingrid A. , Patrick M. Krueger, and John F. Steiner. The groups also have a hard time accessing a better health program, unlike their counterparts. They do not receive justice from the authorities on the issues that are affecting them about health matters. The lack of justice is a description of lack of mercy of people to their fellow human beings.

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The analysis is important in the study to show the level of injustice and lack of mercy to the black prisoners. Crutchfield, Robert D. Before the civil war, there were few Africans in the southern prisons since the population then was lower. The Christianson state by state enumeration which analyzes the relationship between the whites and the colored rates of imprisonment revealed that the percentage of the imprisoned blacks was greater than the total representation in the entire population. This showed that there was a disparate treatment of the blacks in criminal justice which was not appropriate. The argument was that there was an ill treatment of the blacks compared to the whites with the decision-making process being inclined in favor of the natives.

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This made the racial difference appear as a significant factor in the actual crime difference. This resulted from the fact that black children were most likely to be in public programs where the security was tighter, and there was institutional crowding. The data of the children in custody was descriptive, and there were no explanations regarding the differences between the racial discrepancies. During the 1980s the issue of juvenile race and justice was still limited, and there were no explanations on the ignorance of the police decision making. It is clear that the justice of the children of color was subverted and the actions of victimizing more colored children were unjustified. The catholic understanding of justice is that it should be proportional to all parties but in this case, it was only sided on one side which is the whites.

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