Representation and manipulation

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Social Work

Document 1

There are factors that affect these processes, either positively to enhance them or negatively making them challenging. Among these factors is the issue of manipulation of journalists (Beder, n. d. There are two types of forces that can cause a manipulation to journalists. These are internal and external forces. These are not based on any set rules o regulations. They also do not have a force of law. There are several ways in which manipulation is brought about by external forces. Manipulation is intentionally carried out by individuals, organizations or institutions to favor certain interests. These can include people in power or celebrities, organizations in business which have particular motives or even governments. This is mainly done through announcements that have been paid for.

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In most cases, advertising is done by businesses who wish to sell their products or services. Media houses, both electronic and paper are paid to showcase in their different media outlets these products or services as well as the benefits that users accrue by using the products and services. It is, however, important to note that advertising is not only done by businesses. Advertising can also be done by certain groups or individuals (Garcia, 2015). However, other organizations that are powerful can create mass communication that could be propaganda as well. To achieve its intention, which is most often making presentations of information to influence the audience towards taking a certain course, propaganda is repeated severally and disseminated over a wide range of media outlets (Black, 2001).

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This is usually with the intention of creating predetermined results among the audiences who receive the information. Propaganda usually makes use of the norms, beliefs, and myths of a certain society to have the information passed. This way, it is easy for the targeted audience to believe in the information, even without seeking facts. Hoaxing refers to the creation of a fake or false story to get something in return. Examples of hoaxes that have been carried out include bomb threats, scams in business, scientific frauds and different public stunts that are misleading. It is important to note that hoaxes have a common aspect in that they all seek to deceive or lie to their audiences. They also purport to have something to offer to the intended audiences.

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Hoaxes are presented in a way that the intended audiences will easily believe and act on them. The main aim is usually managing the public profile of the individual or organization and ensuring that their image remains positively painted in front of their audiences (Boorstin, 1971). To achieve this, such individuals or organizations intentionally hold information that can ruin their image and ensure that the only information that is released to the public is the kind that will promote their profiles in public. Journalists can, therefore, be limited when the method of public relations is in play, in that they may not be able to get the right or rather the whole information to share with different audiences. External forces that influence journalism are always in play in the day to day lives that journalists lead.

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