Xerox and Total Quality Management

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Business

Document 1

The Xerox Company was founded in 1906 as The Haloid Photographic Company, manufacturing photographic papers and equipment (Hiltzik &Michael 1). Time went on and with scientific innovation, brought more opportunities thereby changing the name of the company to Xerox Corporation in 1961(Hiltzik &Michael 1). This was to match which the diverse and versatile products produced by the company. Rise of Xerox Corporation. The Xerox Corporation came to gloom in 1959 when it introduced the Xerox 914 photocopier, becoming the leading successful single product of all the time (Stevenson &Mehran 1). The company grew substantially throughout the 1960s therefore creating millionaires. Xerox Corporation introduced the first plain paper copier in 1960s (Porter et al 13). In 1973, the company introduced a basic, analogue, color copier based on the Xerox 914. The Xerox 914 photocopier was developed and upgraded to Xerox 660 products (Porter et al 13). The company controlled about 80% of the market share by accumulating and licensing of patents. Xerox Corporation rejuvenated in 1980s and 1990s by quality designs, proper alignment of its product line and development of digital photocopiers (Porter et al 14). This gave it a competitive edge in the market. In 2000s, the company maintained its standards focusing on research introducing Xerox Phaser line of products and Xerox ink printing technology. In 2010s, the company started the decade very well but somewhere along it came under pressure from activist shareholders, outsourcing some businesses initially acquired (Terziovski et al 394). Problems arising internally mostly do have adverse effects on any corporation as compared to those emanating outside. Stagnation of sales. Stagnation in sales was due to a discredited system program planning.

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The machines reached the market faster nevertheless; they were neither cheap nor reliable. For instance, Xerox introduced series 3300 Copiers unfortunately none of them worked (Spencer & Barbara 446). Few months after introducing the copier, Xerox Corporation received overwhelming complaints (Spencer & Barbara 446). This is an important mode of manufacturing process and the working of the machine that determines the success of the company. An automated production process smoothen the flow of work saving on time and labor requirement for each task. The production process is streamlined to ensure that they deliver to their esteemed customers according to the objectives of respective customer (Powell & Thomas 16). Customer satisfaction is the main thing which determines success. In a production process where the system can be customized to meet needs of a specific group of customers is most appropriate.

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The main role of the market function is satisfaction of customers. The company engages customers by conducting customer relationship surveys, transactional surveys and tracking customer satisfaction to get feedback (Swiss & James 357). The suppliers are an important link of the company in delivery of value to customers (Porter et al 14). It is suppliers that sell resources of production to the corporation facilitating production of goods and services. Problem arising between the company and its suppliers is likely to have an adverse effect especially if not given serious attention to solve. The trend of improvement has increased the business opportunities from just manufacturing to offering of automation services (Porter et al 14). Xerox Corporation acknowledges that best results are achieved when the environmental considerations are put into place at all stages of designing the product before it is released to the market.

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The company has therefore committed itself in designing environmental friendly products, in 2005 the company stopped using mercury and lead in the design of its products (Porter et al 14). Curbing environmental pollution is a collective responsibility that calls for each individual person to act. Thinking globally and acting locally responsible is the main drive to solving our world problem. Penetration of leading industries. Xerox Corporation had a lion share of the market from the beginning of 20th century for being the pioneer company (Spencer & Barbara 450). The company has maintained the share throughout the century through research thereby pioneering more innovations. In mid 20th century, Xerox Corporation diversified into information technology keeping it on top of the market share. Japanese tried to penetrate the American market by introducing more affordable photocopier machine than Xerox machine (Hendrizks et al 270).

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Productivity Xerox Corporation invented photocopier machine and maintained the monopoly for a number of years. The company’s market reduced after some time with entry of some other companies such as Kodak came into play too (Spencer &Barbara 450). Xerox therefore started suffering due pride, rejecting outside ideas. Eventually, the Xerox Corporation did a virtual bench marking analyzing; every duty and task of production, cost of production and quality of the products. This improved Xerox Corporation productivity therefore confirming the importance of bench marking (Spencer &Barbara 450). and Sherry L. Jarrell. The effects of total quality management on corporate performance: an empirical investigation.  The Journal of Business 71. Hendricks, Kevin B. Total quality management in UK higher education institutions.  Total Quality Management 10. Porter, Leslie J. and Adrian J. Parker.  Academy of management review 19. Stevenson, William J.

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and Mehran Hojati.  Operations management. Vol.

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Document 2

Despite staying active for close to 4 decades, the company only acquired its commercial rights in xerography by the fall of 1947. The most significant development occurred in 1959 when Xerox introduced the 914 xerographic copiers that albeit having been in existence for a while, had not received trading recognition. Following the success witnessed in its first machines, the company expanded its line of operation, launching both information and publication products. By 1985, Xerox Corporation had developed printers, copiers as well as digital production presses among other useful publication technologies (Sunny, 2013). Although the company had retained its market monopoly for a long time, it experienced the most devastating decline in market share by over 35% due to its inability to compete effectively with new entrants including IBM. To remain relevant, Xerox needed a thorough benchmarking process that would target the quality of its operations, cost and its productivity relative to the best performing firms. The outstanding positive performance of the company that has lasted for several centuries is due to its keen focus on diversity. Xerox has a large number of people working together, generating unique ideas ideal for dramatic results (Day, 2011). In fact, the organization has set up a guideline responsible for human resource integration in which each employee regards colleagues as part and parcel of their operation. As a result, the corporation has been on record for standing firm to ensure respect, equality, and dignity to its employees (Heaton, 2018). The advantage of this aspect is that it is capable of motivating all workers who in turn uphold the quality standards of operations.

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Xerox enjoys the value originating from its executive willingness to ensure peaceful working environment, adequate representation of the workforce, and improvement of multicultural variation. Besides, the corporation has set forth avenues leading to successful opportunities originating from its well-structured supplies system. Similarly, Xerox Corporation has designed strategies targeting customer satisfaction. Mainly, every business entity has the mandate to hold with regard the customer perception and feel for the products in circulation (Jung et al. Even though most other firms use different strategies, the overall secret centers on the quality of services and the value of the products. Ideally, every human being has fascinating in his or her life. Identifying and exploiting various avenues about consumers is essential in influencing the volume of performance. It is this secret that Xerox has discovered and inscribed within its mission.

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Actually, studies indicate that Xerox has over-qualified personnel who are capable of translating the needs projected from the consumers’ end (Nanda & Robinson, 2011). In fact, through benchmarking, the firm was laying a foundation to improve the quality of its services. The ultimate result was encouraging. Nearly all areas were making drastic progress, and there was a new life again. This practice resulted in the reduction in the cost of manufacturing among other right moves. Like in other firms, Xerox considers its Total Quality Management as an essential component of its core activities such as manufacturing, production, and supplies. Xerox is not an excuse for this development (Schaltegger, Lüdeke-Freund & Hansen, 2012). Mostly, the executive is aware that success is not just about management, it is also an aspect of bringing together diverse attributes.

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An entire workforce comprises of people with significant variations in their fields of specialization. Other differences also emerge from cultural alignment, religion or gender. Respect for these distinctions among employees results in an instant performance boost (Sunny, 2013). As a result of this trend, Xerox witnessed the most challenging economic time in its history especially after 1985. Its sales volume dropped by a large margin, and it was likely to collapse. Luckily, leadership transition rekindled the company’s hope though it still lagged behind its competitors – thanks to the introduction of benchmarking approaches. The emergence of portable memory card slots and emails has also posed a significant threat to the performance of copier industries. Initially, people would save their products in paperwork form. Its survival in the market has occurred due to its willingness to adapt to the dynamics of the industry.

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Despite having monopolized the copier business for several years, there was a turn of events against Xerox. The entry of other firms such as Kodak shifted everything, and the rate of sales stagnated significantly pushing Xerox from top leadership. Fortunately, Xerox Organization responded swiftly by adopting Total Quality Management measures that would ensure it retraced its original market leadership. Through Total Quality Management, Xerox has managed to reduce the overall cost of production by a considerable margin. Day, G. S. Closing the marketing capabilities gap. Journal of marketing, 75(4), 183-195. Heaton, J. Services Transactions on Cloud Computing, 1(2), 15-27. doi. stcc. Nanda, V. Robinson, J. Lüdeke-Freund, F. Hansen, E. G. Business cases for sustainability: the role of business model innovation for corporate sustainability. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 6(2), 95-119. Hermel, P.

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The role of quality management practice in the performance of integrated supply chains: a multiple cross-case analysis. Quality Management Journal, 18(2), 10-25. Zott, Christoph, and Raphael Amit. The business model: A theoretically anchored robust construct for strategic analysis.

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