Cultural Analysis of Burka Ban in Denmark and Europe
Denmark is not the first country to ban face-covering garments like the burqa and the niqab, but before the recent ban of 2018 was accepted, they had proposed a similar ban in 2009. Back then the ban did not go through, with arguments pointing towards violations of the Danish constitution as well as the provisions of the human rights convention on freedom of religion. The proposal was, back then, solely targeting burqas and niqabs – not other forms of coverage in public space. Since this proposal in Denmark, laws banning garments like the burqa and niqab in public space has been implemented in France, Belgium and Austria. A quite important point to mention is that the Human Rights Tribune in Strasbourg did not establish that neither the French ban nor the Belgian ban violated the convention’s provisions of religious freedom and the right to a private life, until 2014 and later in 2017.
The only restriction is the consideration of morality and public order. A targeted ban against burqas and niqabs would hardly pass this test. But it is something else when the ban only entails a general ban. This namely coheres with the constitution that one cannot, with reference to one’s religious belief, “evade the fulfillment of any ordinary civil obligation”. In other words, one cannot be freed from meeting the common religiously neutral law, on the basis of religious reasons. All these theories clearly bring out how ethnocentrism can be present in Europe and Denmark as a result of the ban of the burka. Theories and Definitions Relativistic Fallacy This theory can be used to explain how the ban of burqa in Europe and Denmark signifies ethnocentrism.
Relativistic fallacy, in practice, signifies that ethnocentric decisions are unsatisfactory for both the parties involved and the person losing the credit. Relativistic fallacy also refers to the idea that it is difficult to make judgments about other people's beliefs or practices, (Robins & Dowty 2016, p. The word relativism insinuates the making of decisions on behalf of others, without their consent. Recent research suggests that ethnocentric thoughts are as a result of "focusing on certain virtues rather than others," (Christopher & Hickinbottom, 2008, p. 564 para 3). The barn of the burqa by the European governments could be associated with their stereotypical opinions of the Islam nation, especially in regards to the security of the European states. The governments choose to focus on the effects of the women hiding their faces to the security of the country.
While as, the partial hiding of the faces, per the culture of the Islam women, is to elicit the privacy and timidity with which women were traditionally regarded. Consequently, people are misled into believing the personal ideas. According to Christopher & Hickinbottom (2008, p. 566), personalized yet exemplary notions are misleading to other communities because they advocate for ideas that are only true for one community. Ethnocentrism calls for the consideration of one’s opinion and the consideration of one's opinion or cultural relations is sometimes thought to be the opinion of everyone (Bailey & Peoples 2014, p. Thus, there is need to consider other people’s opinions before taking action against them. In our case, the ban of burqa can be related to this theory since we can see that the government did not consider this ban to have any consequences.
We can also see that some governments passed a bill to punish women found to be wearing the burka (BBC 2018) since no consequence would follow. However, the Islamic group, upon which this ban was implemented, feels out of place and this is a clear indication of ethnocentrism. The Islam is also not well represented in the political sector hence they would not be able to deal with this ban. They were not involved when the decision was made. Hence this ban might make them feel out of place in the country. In one of the readings, Hannerz proposed that people are always searching for the sense of belonging in public places and they continue to ask themselves, "Who are we-and use politics not just to advance their interests but also to define their identities (Hannerz, 1999, p.
This ban has undermined the culture of the Islam women since they have been denied the right to enjoy wearing the burqa just because the government has a different view on such clothing. The government views such clothing as masks while as the Islam view it as a way of life. People are by nature drawn to a culture that they relate to, and they resent the cultures that feel different and hostile to them. Therefore, the European governments do not need to impose the barn on the burqas at "such a time when the vast majority of Muslims do not see it as a religious duty. It is important to note that cultures define the people who know them (Bailey & Peoples 2014, p.
The research and analysis of foreign cultures define the researcher so that, upon the completion of the study of the culture, the researcher favors the culture. This insinuates that research should not be allowed when studying cultures with which stringent policies are to be employed. The personalization effect as a result of the identification with the culture results in new identities for the researchers, who are considered as “observers in the world” (Markulla & Silk 2011, p. As a result, they should be allowed to practice that which makes sense to them. The same applies when the individuals are required to adhere to regulations that are alien to them. Analysis With the use of these theories, it is clear that ethnocentrism is present in Europe and Denmark.
The government has not involved the Islam community in the ban of the burka, which is just their way of life. In this case, the state has undermined other people’s culture without considering the consequences. Consequently, this resulted in the governments’ disengagement with the Islam culture. The decision to ban the burka could further have been blamed on the political anthropology. The passing of the barn required the legislature to vote the barn into law in most of the democratic countries. It must have also required the input of the parliamentary representatives who voted in unison against the wearing of the burka. Thus, the politicians must have insight into fellow politician and the European population into accepting the proposed bill.
The implementation of ethical relativity ought to have been employed so that all the people were equally represented. Cultures affected should be allowed to take part in the decisions made fully and so should the parties be allowed to ensure that they avail all the cultural significance of the events. Governments should also consider opinions of other cultures before passing bills that are against them. Not only the majority groups should be consulted, but also the minority and each one of them should have adequate representation in their respective governments. Ethnocentrism is not a good practice and should therefore be condemned in our societies, so that each member of the society can fill appreciated. Everyday Women's and Gender Studies: Introductory Concepts.
From $10 to earn access
Only on Studyloop