Does the size o priming effect the emotional valence of the words

Document Type:Lab Report

Subject Area:Psychology

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The RT of negative words was slower compared to positive and neutral words. The study found out that priming of words effect the emotional valence of words depending on the type of word. Does the Size of Priming effect of the Emotional Valence of Words Introduction Psycholinguistic research suggests that impacts of variables in word recognition are effective through manipulation and emotionality where effective and cognitive processes are usually high (Forster & Davis, 1984). Two dimensions are involved for an experiment to manipulated effectively. They include valence emotional (that show whether a stimulus is positive or negative) and emotional arousal (that explain the intensity of emotions and is linked to stimulus and can be triggered physiologically). According to a study conducted by van Kleef, 2009, how human beings see, think and associate the world is affected also by emotional influences.

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Logical processing differences of high valence words is visible at the experimental, behavioural and neural levels when compared to the neutral words. The differences are also there when processing positive and negative words. Recent studies suggest that association of semantic networks support valence decision. In a study done by Hofmann and Jacobs (2014), there is a correlation between positive valence and association of number of words. Method Participants The experiment had 144 students of a university in Melbourne who were self-reported native speakers of English. Who were divided into three groups (i. e. positive, negative and neutral group) Materials During the experiment, 90 prime-target words triplets were used where each triplet contained two primes and one target word. One of the two primes was a control (a word not semantically related to the target word) and one of the words was a prime (that was semantically related to the target word).

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The masks and targets remained on the screen until the participants responded. All the participants were showed all 900 prime target word triplets and the groups differed only in terms of the instructions given where one group judged whether each word presented was a negative valence or not, another judged whether each word presented was a positive valence or not while the other one judged whether each word presented represented somewhere or a place they could go (neutral emotional valence). Participants were asked to respond as quickly and as accurately as possible. Each was group exposed to an equal number of prime-related word pairs and prime-control pairs; the order was randomised of related and control pairs within groups. After the main task had finished, participants were told that they would be presented with a list of questions, and that they should answer these based on their initial intuition without thinking too hard.

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87 which was greater than the SD of control pair RT which was 166. the trend of the SD between the stimuli increased from negative to positive to neutral words. A 2-way, mixed –design ANOVA was conducted for 3 (between-subjects: Stimulus Word Type- negative emotional, neutral and positive valence) × 2 (within-subjects: RTs- Prime and control pairs). Three t-tests were used to examine the size of the priming effect for each of the three stimuli types (negative, control and positive valence) there the t-tests show that priming effect and negative words do not differ significantly (t (39) = -4. 73, p <. 28, p =. In explaining the findings, the correlation between anxiety scores and negative stimuli had a trend towards significance although the approach was not significant and the trend continues to be strong between happiness score and positive stimuli (i.

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e. from r =. 31, p =. positive, negative or neutral word). The findings of this study explains that after the meaning of an entire word pair is computed, then activation of a negative valence occurs which is in an agreement with a prediction by Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis (Lazarus, 1984). This also is an explanation why the RT of negative words is slower compared to the RT of positive and neutral words. This explain that the relative performance of both the positive and the neutral words pairs were slowed by the negative words pairs that had prime controlled pairs. This finding also agrees with a study conducted by Barca & Pezzulo (2012) that explained that RT of positive words was faster because the nature of the item or the word also affect it and that negative words required attention.

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