Modeling Mendel's experiment lab report

Document Type:Lab Report

Subject Area:Biology

Document 1

The reason people have features/traits that look like each parent is because genes influence the traits that one inherits in unpredictable and predictable ways. Genes are playing critical role in the shaping of the way we act and look and whether we get sick or not. We receive genes from both the mother and the father. The passing of the genes from the parents to their children is called inheritance (Smith et al. In some instances, a child may have different traits from those of his/her parents. This scenario is explained by the genes and the manner in which they passed from the parents to their children. Inheriting completely different sets of genes from the parents would give a child with a unique genetic combination. Besides, the child may have grown up in a different environment from that of the parents and therefore, such a child is bound to be different from his/her parents (Palmer et al. Theory Genetics as a discipline of biology refers to the science of variation, hereditary, and genes in living organisms. It is simply a branch of science dealing with the scientific examinations of variation, hereditary and genes in an organism (Klug et al. The application of the genetic knowledge may be traced to the early civilization in which people were relying on the genetic information in improving the productivity of the domesticated plant species that were used for food like rice, wheat and corn as well as the species of domesticated animals.

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Genetic influences were used in increasing the yield of crops (Smith et al. Gregor Mendel is considered the Father of Genetics. He was born in 1822. Initially, he only studied only one pair of the contrasting traits. He began his experiments with the use of garden pea plant. He recognized two principles of inheritance which were later called the Principles of Mendellian Inheritance: Law of Segregation or the First Law; and the Law of independent Assortment or the Second Law. The two laws were discovered with the use of pea plant. Mendel used pea plant because pea plant is self-pollinating, easy to grow, available in several distinguishable varieties and it is possible to control their mating (Palmer et al. Alleles refer to the different forms of a similar gene and they may result into different traits.

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Requirements Seeds of Wisconsin Fast Plants, Brassica rapa Plates Ruler Sheet of filter paper Petri dish Pipette Water Procedure 1. A ruler was used in drawing a 2 cm line from the edge of the sheet of the filter paper. The date, initials of the date and seed type were written on the filter paper. The filter paper was placed inside the lid of the petri dish. A pipette was used to add water to the filter paper until it was completely saturated. How does your class data compare with the expected phenotype ratio predicted by the Punnett square? What is the class phenotype ratio? The data differ from the expected ratio predicted by the punnet square. Class total for Phenotype A - 43 + class total for Phenotype B – 15 = Total counted by the class – 58.

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What counts are expected from the Punnett square? Are the actual counts close to the expected counts? If not, what are some factors that may have caused your results to be different? The expected number from the punnet square is 4. The actual count was more than the punnet square count. Did you support your hypothesis? Why or why not? I support the hypothesis. Discussion The expected phenotypic ratio is 3:1 while the actual phenotypic ratio was 1:2. this means that the actual phenotypic ratio was 1:3. My punnet square from this experiment support this ratio because the F2 cross data support the actual phenotypic ratio. Will the F1 generation be homologous and heterozygous for color? If the law of segregation and dominance is accurate, then if a green color pod is crossed with a yellow color pod, the characteristics of the parents would cross over to the offspring properly.

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According to the law of segregation, allele pars separate (segregate) during the formation of the gamete and the paired condition will be restored by during fertilization in which the gametes will fuse. The paired conditions of the genes will therefore be restored. In the experiment performed by Mendel, each of the gametes of the parental plants had one allele for the color of the pods that specified either yellow or green color for the pods. The cross-pollination producing F1that resulted into a combination in the generation. When the two pair of alleles are different, one pair will be fully expressed while the other will be masked completely. These are referred to as recessive allele or dominant allele (Palmer et al. The phenotypic ration of each of the characteristic was singly 3:1.

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The results of the experiment were in support of the hypothesis which stated that each of the allele pairs will separate independently during the process of gamete formation. Mendel all the seven of his characteristics in several combinations in hybrid crosses in which each case, he found 9:3:3:1 (Palmer et al. From this experiment, based on the obtained results, my results were obeying Mendel’s law. My first results obeyed the First law of Mendel, the law of segregation whereas P2 obeyed the Second law of Mendel, the law of independent assortment. The expected phenotype ration may be different from the actual phenotype ratio because multiple genotype may cause the same phenotypes. Conclusion In summary, it was possible to recognize as well as interpret the Wisconsin Fast Plants, Brassica rapa that demonstrated both laws of Mendel, the law of segregation and law of independent assortment.

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Besides, It was possible to declare whether obtained results were relevant or not. References References Smith, Mike U. and Niklas M. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1997. Palmer, Reid G. et al. Qualitative genetics.  Soybeans: Improvement, production, and uses.

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