Essay on Knowledge Management
It will be done in relation to management information systems theory and business processes measurement. The paper starts by reviewing the position by (Gray, et al. , 2015) after which relevant theories are put forward to weigh the statement by the author. The next section is on aspects of Knowledge Management where focus is narrowed on competencies and a real word case on apprenticeship at a bakery evaluated. The paper proceeds to evaluate the Communities of Practice where underlying theories on social approaches are used and the findings compared to ChevronTexaco. It is therefore essential that business process management is upheld within business organizations (Gray, et al. Further, (Gray, et al. , 2015) point out that the issue is further complicated by existence of cross functional processes among business functions all of which aim to produce specific intended deliverables.
Aspects of knowledge management According to (Rosenberg, 2001), a crucial component of organization’s capital is its capability to gain knowledge and then strategically manage its application within its business processes. As a result, the identity of knowledge and its usage have grown into significant aspects of modern contemporary business organizations. The author provides a case where an apprentice at a bakery learns tacit skills through observation, imitation and then practice. Such an individual is socialized into the craft. The other form involves explicit to explicit transfer. In this scenario, an individual combines discrete knowledge pieces into new wholesome units. Thirdly, there is tacit to explicit case whereby the apprentice articulates the foundations of her tacit knowledge of baking and converts it into explicit knowledge for sharing with project development team (Nonaka, 2007).
Such communities of practice have generated importance within organizational development and create high value when work is done in groups. Notably, they shift from the views of (Nonaka, 2007) where knowledge acquisition is individualized and that learning has a start and an end. Instead (Lave & Wenger, 1991)believe that learning is social and knowledge is generated from engaging in repetitive activities. The two advance a model of situated learning whereby knowledge acquisition is carried out in a community of practice. Further, (Lave & Wenger, 1991) hold that communities of learning surround individuals and individuals are always involved in several at a time. The author begins by appreciating the role of structure and networks whereby such units are believed to be critical for connecting people, processes and culture to achieve objectives in operational excellence.
In this organization, the community of practice connects employees with similar skills or duties with related responsibilities. At ChevronTexaco, each network has leaders and voluntary membership though differences exist in sponsorship and funding, accountability and nature of interaction. The organization creates an operational excellence network through application of strategic networks. Both (Nonaka, 2007) and (Stemke, 2004) recognize the value of time in their cases of knowledge acquisition. Through the lens of an operations perspective, business performance management (BPM) encompasses the metrics that quantify efficiency and effectiveness of actions. From the strategic control approach, BPM relates to procedures that provide business performance metrics and information for challenging content, validity and success of strategy. (Franco-Santos, et al. , 2007) note that BPM systems are similar to management planning and budgeting from a management accounting approach.
These approaches make it difficult for organizational leaders to determine successes in measurement of knowledge management or Communities of Practice initiatives. Further, they recommend that agreement on nature and design of measures is necessary for comparable uses of BPM across different sectors. (Franco-Santos, et al. , 2007) find that financial metrics are commonly applied though agreements on other metrics to include are absent. As a result, generic characteristics of metrics to include is challenging in BPM systems. However, (Franco-Santos, et al. Shifting from the theoretical to practical framework is seen where Essex Police identifies Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) from Key Performance Questions (KPQs). Essex Police realizes that rigor is needed in this performance improvement intervention to bridge the gap between theory and practice.
However, it is notable that challenges established in the theoretical approach are eliminated by streamlining the BPM process to generate an effective ‘Plan on a Page’ solution. Intellectual Capital and Social Networks In the article by (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998), the roots of intellectual capital are seen to be deeply embedded in social relations and underlying structures. This provides a sharp turn from the work by (Franco-Santos, et al. For effective application, (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998) suggest that organizations should facilitate exchange, scope and combination to balance all the drivers. In the event that knowledge organizations have limited funds, interactions between intellectual capital and social networks may be hindered by fund shortages. In particular, (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998) note that costly relations are observed from relational and cognitive dimensions of social capital.
The authors state that development of intellectual capital calls for conscious and unconscious investment where relative costs must be weighed against benefits. In terms of social networks, the size and complexity of social structures influences growth in intellectual capital and ultimately knowledge acquisition in the organization. ) where the two authors focus on the Assurance and Financial Services (AFS) division of a Stockholm based multinational named Skandia. Intellectual capital is described in terms of a tree where hidden value is in the root system. Healthy, strong roots are required for such trees to first of all flourish and then bear fruit. Intellectual capital allows for fast learning, reusing of applied experience and international skill transfer. It acts as the fundamental root system though relegated from accounting systems.
In this line, the director first of all identifies and then measures intellectual capital items within operating units of the entity. (Bucklew & Edvinsson, n. d. ) note that benefits have been realized from intellectual capital. The startup time for new offices has been cut by at least a third whereas computer based training and networks have reduced traveling and training expenditures hence promoting competence development. Performance Measurement is complicated by absence of standardization of concepts though institutional definition of elements is seen as necessary to leverage on it. Intellectual capital is seen to closely relate to social networks where its application creates organizational competencies. From the paper, scholars and business leaders should determine elements to measure before engaging in such exercises. References Bucklew, M.
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