Limited Access to Employment

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Management

Document 1

Educational structure The high rate of education discrimination in Canada creates a formidable invisible barrier to women and other equity seeking groups in accessing equitable job opportunities (Darling-Hammond, 2015). According to Harlan & Steinberg, occupational segregation and accumulation of disadvantaged groups in low-class jobs are as a result of educational systems that clustered students in terms of gender, race, age and social classes. New immigrants, people from lower social classes, women, youth, and minorities are the major victims of illiteracy and low educational achievements in the country. Public schools are the primary sources of educational discrimination whereby teachers' attitude, administrative policies, and gender stereotyping deny young girls and youth their right to equitable education thus limiting their access to equitable employment opportunities in the country. According to a study carried out among a variety of focus groups of women in Toronto and Ottawa, little concern of different trades in supporting women and youths in their vocational programs have adversely affected their access to equal employment opportunities (Pullman, 2015). Economic and wage policies have further marginalized women and equity-seeking groups in their bid to acquire the required skills in the job market. Besides that, it is identified that, due to lack of regard of this trade agencies in vocational training, women and other disadvantaged groups are forced to incur considerable debt-burden to finance their higher education in either vocational training colleges or community-based training colleges offering associate degrees. Most of the students graduating from four-year Canadian colleges are possibly the whites and particularly those coming from middle or high socio backgrounds (Coca et al, 2017).

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Some students who drop school before graduating get work training from either private or public institutions such as community colleges (which provide vocational training) or from employers. Other women and disadvantaged groups do not have access to any training at all and this fact has a major negative impact on their life (Sawchuk & Taylor, 2010). The mismatch on skills acquired by the graduates is more pronounced in women than in men, thus creating an unfavourable perception of women in most of the employers. The combination of these unattractive perceptions of women and the skills mismatch among the graduates has limited the possibilities of women, youths and other equity seeking individuals in accessing equitable employment opportunities. Skills mismatch among the graduates can be associated with the quality of education offered in Canadian schools (Livingstone & Raykov, 2017).

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The education system is monopolistic that making more schools pay limited attention or no attention to the value and quality of the product as it would be anticipated in a case of a competitive education system. More graduates have low skills compared to what is expected in the job market since the development of the required skills in the labour market is neglected. Such employer practices of associating women with low-class jobs have a negative impact on the women and minority groups; they can be largely blamed for the highest proportion of limiting women and minority group’s progress in securing better employment opportunities in Canada. Organizational practices and culture A variety of decisions made by the organization's management teams create organizational complexity in matters relating to accessibility of equitable employment opportunities or advancing to higher levels.

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These practices and decisions include; eliminating any connection or possibility of advancement in low status job that are closely related to women, initial placement of female qualified candidates in job that are non-existent, lower rates of promotion on female-typed associated jobs compared incumbent male-typed jobs, restrictive promotional eligibility for any lucky females who join the male-typed jobs, restrictive work schedules that require excessive job commitment restrict women from securing jobs since they still have family responsibilities to carry out (Messing, et al. Stereotyping culture, social norms give the basis of the organizational decision on the appropriate job that suits certain employees based on their gender, race, age, religion, and disability. These decisions provide an excellent path on how organizations with complex structure carry out their recruitment process and employee appraisal thus hindering the potential of women and disadvantaged groups in accessing equitable employment opportunities (Osterman, 2014).

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The federal government in collaboration with the provincial administration should implement more anti-discriminatory policies to curb the women and minority inequalities in the labour market. Community-based training facilities that have a long-term prosperity record should be empowered to provide women with skills that will help them overcome multiple barriers limiting their accessibility to equitable employment. For a number of years, these facilities provide the most accessible path for many women to access the labour market. All social classes of women, youths and other equity seeking groups in Canada admit there are limited comprehensive measures in regard to accessibility of the limited employment support services. The organizations should set administrative rules that promote best practices in the recruitment and performance appraisal process (Sue, Rasheed & Rasheed, 2015). The federal government should enact laws and establish agencies that will enforce and supplement existing laws that segregate and discriminate women and equity-seeking groups from accessing equitable employment opportunities in Canada.

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References Coca, V. Nagaoka, J. Seeskin, A. Patterns of two-year and four-year college enrollment among Chicago Public Schools graduates. W. Raykov, M. The Growing Gap Between Post-secondary Schooling and Further Education: Findings of 1998, 2004, 2010 and 2016 National Surveys The Employed Canadian Labour Force. The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education (Online), 29(1), 83. Messing, K. Gender and Education, 27(7), 759-775 Sawchuk, P. Taylor, A. Eds.  Challenging transitions in learning and work: Reflections on policy and practice. Rotterdam, NL: Sense Publishers Spencer, B. John Wiley & Sons.

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