Gastric Bypass Surgery Essay
Subject Area:Health Care
The two are measured using the BMI which is the ratio of weight in kilograms and the square of height in meters. A BMI of 25 and up to 30 is considered overweight, while 30 and above is considered to be obese. According to the World Health Organization WHO, 1. 9 billion people are overweight, and 650 million of those are obese. Globally, over 2. Thus, gastric bypass surgery is carried out as a means of reducing the quantity and the rate of food absorption in the body. Cause and Effects This section will discuss the causes and the effects of the gastric bypass surgery procedure. The surgery involves making changes to the stomach and as well to the digestive system thus limiting the quantity of food intake and as well controlling the rate of nutrients absorption in the body.
This leads to the weight loss and thus improving on overweight and obesity complications. The following are the major causes that lead to necessity of Gastric bypass surgery; hypertension suffered as a result of obesity, Type II diabetes, sleep apnea and heart disease, failure of other alternative weight loss methods to prove to positivity for over five years in practice. Obese people tend to have a thicker tissue around their throats which makes them to be highly susceptible to apnea(Colombo, Joseph, et al. When this condition happens to an obese victim, the diaphragm and the chest muscles works harder to pave way on the enclosed airway to allow air to pass through. As a result, breathing is heard to occur with a loud gasp and a jerk in the body and eventually decreases the amount of oxygen that flows into important organs bodyas well affects the quality of sleep to the patients.
Gastric bypass surgery is necessary for the patient because it will reduce the overweight of the patient as it reduces the thickness of the throat tissues and minimizing the tendency of suffering from apnea. This is how Gastric bypass surgery is helpful and necessary to be initiated to obese patients. The only effective and possible remedy to this kind of infection is the short-term use of anti-biotics, diligent respiratory therapy and also putting a lot of concern on physical activities within shortest time after surgery which can prove to reduce infections greatly. ii) Venous thromboembolism Every injury done on the surface of the skin such as surgical operation causes effects on the body such as increased coagulation of blood. Since gastric bypass surgery includes operations, there is a tendency of increased chances of formation of clots in the veins of the abdomen especially in the pessimistically obese patients.
This causes a clot that breaks freely and floats to the lungs causing pulmonary embolus which is a fatal occurrence. As a remedy to avoid the scenario of Venous thromboembolism, blood thinners should be administered first to the obese patients before the surgery commences. In order to contain this situation, laparoscopic surgery is highly recommended. v) Bowel obstruction Surgeries such as abdominal surgery most often results in some blemishing of the bowel causing an effect known as adhesions. This condition also can be caused by either internal or the abdominal wall surgery. As the bowel becomes trapped by the adhesions, it becomes kinked and obstructed. This may occur even several years after the original surgical procedure has been done. ii) Anastomotic stricture During the healing of the anastomosis, there is a formation of scar tissue that tend to shrink within the course of time which eventually makes the opening smaller.
This shrinking mechanism is referred to as stricture. On the time of food passage through the intestines, this stricture will be stretched to open. On the other hand, if swelling and healing process outstrips the stretching process, scarring might occur and as a result it makes the stricture to be so small thus making even the passage of liquids through it to be limited. In order to overcome this stricture problem, a procedure known as gastroendoscopy and a continuous connection of inflated balloons will help in attaining a long lasting corrective measure to the effect. Calcium is always absorbed in the duodenum which is the main organ that the bypassed surgery occurs in. Therefore, most patients of gastric bypassed surgery suffer from hypocalcemia.
The best remedy to this fatal condition is supplementing the deficiency with vitamin D and calcium citrate to heal the bypassed stomach with ease. Secondly, gastric bypass surgery causes dislocation of the duodenum that is responsible with the absorption iron inform of ferrate irons (Damms-Machado, Antje, et al. As a result, women patients suffer the deficiency during menstrual periods because they are definitely lacking blood initiatives which is iron in this case. Nutrition effects Statistics taken from patients who undergo Gastric bypass surgery shows that most patients feel a lot of fullness after ingesting little volumes of food. Loss of appetite also is another preceding effect as a result. In general terms, the total food intake by the patients is totally incapacitated as a result of reduced size of the stomach resulting from the surgery being done (Damms-Machado, Antje, et al.
The duodenum is cut substantially hence making the stomach pouch that retain food temporarily while waiting for digestion to reduce in size thus making the patients to take little food to their fullness. In order to enable the patients,contain these conditions, surgeons always recommend a balanced diet meal inform of supplements to the forbidden diet that might cause the obesity and overweight to the patient. During weight loss, the body size automatically becomes small and the amount of the energy that is required to perform metabolic activities also decreases hence the patient is compelled to take a lot of food in consistence. As a result of equal consumption of energy to the calories being eaten by the patient, weight loss will automatically stop and therefore proximal gastric bypass surgery will lead to loss of a substantial amount of weight of about 60 to 80% of the excess body weight which cause a lot of dangers to the patients (Kellman, 89).
iii) Vitamins Vitamins are nutritional substances that are always found in food supplements. Food that is always eaten by patients after gastric bypass surgery is always in small quantity when compared to that amount that was initially taken before undergoing through gastric bypass surgery thus creating a corresponding lowered amount of the vitamins in the diet (Kellman, 89). It is therefore wise for patients who have just completed gastric bypass surgery to stick to vitamin supplements to complete the suggested minimums of the nutrients that is fit for good health. Results showered that the gastric bypass surgery groups had an average peak alcohol breath level of about 0. 08% while the control group indicated an average alcohol peak of 0. 05% (Damms-Machado, Antje, et al. Further analysis on the groups indicated that the gastric bypass patients had a prolonged period of time that the alcohol contents were being retained in their breaths which was approximately 108 minutes whereas the control group took 72 minutes to become alcohol free.
v) Pica This refers to the incontrollable tendency of eating other substances apart from normal food. 1 g/dl. The comparison is so weird that the levels for the gastric bypass surgery women is highly wanting. This high deficiency therefore is obviously the causative agent of the increased pica activity among the gastric bypass surgery women (Madura & DiBiase 1). On a control experiment, the woman was given iron supplements and after a given period of time, the iron and hemoglobin blood levels were regulated to the recommended levels whereby the patient only took an average of two to three glasses of ice every day within that month. On a continuous supply of the iron supplements, the patient proved nit to take any glass of ice even for days.
It requires a permanent change of diet and lifestyle. The reduction in the nutrients absorptions can cause other complications owing to a deficiency in vitamins and minerals. It may lead to dumping syndrome. The surgery just like any other poses risks such as wound infections, bleeding, and blood clots amongst others. There is a 1-5% risk of serious complications such as heart attack, blood clot, leaks in the connections, and serious infections (Madura & DiBiase 2). Whereas the probability of developing major complications is low, it is a risk not worth taking considering that there are other less risky and effective intervention programs. In addition, the gastric bypass surgery should be done by expertise doctors and surgeons because it entails a lot risks such as infections on the duodenum if it is not carefully conducted.
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