Icd 10 dsm
These include the definition of a disorder and the decision of the normal and abnormal limits that form the boundaries of a disorder. The American Psychiatric Association uses the DSM as a diagnostic manual while the World Health Organization uses the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) as a diagnostic manual. These are bound to diagnose psychological disorders in different ways. This essay will focus on a single psychological disorder and attempt to explain the similarities and differences between the two diagnostic manuals. Psychoanalytic Theory Psychological theories are models that are used in psychology to understand different aspects of human behaviors, thoughts, and emotions. Kleine defined depression as an emotion that stems from a deprived mother-child relationship during a child’s first year (McLeod, 2015).
Psychoanalytical theory defined depression as a disorder that was caused due to biological factors. The most common was the loss of a relationship with another person or an established state such as the loss of a job. In one case, the suppressed anger from the loss of a relationship would be directed inward and result into feelings of depression (McLeod, 2015). This would be due to the loss of the individual’s self-esteem which would make them more vulnerable to depression. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder defines situations in which children up to the age of 18 are affected by bipolar disorder. The main features of this depressive disorder include irritability, physical aggression accompanied by verbal rages and an inconsistent level of development (Nuckols, n.
d). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder refers to the state of depression that occurs in the final week before menses in females. The state improves on the onset of menses and disappears postmenses. In addition, the specific behaviors provided support the process of diagnosis. Zhang shows a loss on self-confidence, and an increasing level of anxiety. Self-confidence can be equated to self-esteem. These feelings are key in enabling one develop the confidence to carry out a task. A case where self-confidence or self-esteem is deprived results into feelings of emptiness and worthlessness (Murphy, 2015). The diagnostic manual specified mild depressive disorder as the observed appearance of between two and three symptoms related to depression (ICD-10, 2015). Moderate depression is a state where there is an observed appearance of four or more symptoms associate with depression.
In such cases, the individual suffering from depression experiences difficulty in carrying out daily activities. Severe depressive episodes are divided into those with psychotic symptoms and those that lack psychotic symptoms. Those that include psychotic symptoms is marked by the observable appearance of several symptoms associated with depression, and includes the presence of delusions, hallucinations, stupor and psychomotor retardation (ICD-10, 2015). The two diagnostic manuals agree that depression affects both the somatic and cognitive nature of an individual. Depression is a state that alters one’s emotions and by extension their physical behavior. Both the ICD-10 and the DSM agree on a set of features as standard symptoms in diagnosing depression. These includes aspects such as low self-esteem, feelings of worthlessness, irritability, sadness, and emptiness.
These base feelings are derived from the work of Sigmund Freud in psychoanalytical theories. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the treatment processes involved pharmacological processes such as the use the poppy and other mood relievers (Ban, 2014). In the 20th century, pharmacological options improved to the use of chlorpromazine as treatment for depression. Other pharmacological options used during this period included antipsychotics such as levomepromazine (Ban, 2014). The use of pharmacological options to alleviate the symptoms of depression still form the current treatment options. The medicine has undergone improvement from a pharmacological point of view as the study of the short and long term effects of the medicine has improved over time. As a result, many people end up suffering in silence and fail to receive the care and treatment they deserve.
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