Investigating the right position and the right Instrument for Taking Blood pressure measurements

Document Type:Lab Report

Subject Area:Biology

Document 1

Globally, the number of people with uncontrolled blood pressure has been rising from the 1980s where it was about 600 million people to 1 billion cases living in the years after 2010 (Mukkamala et al. The cardiac cycle that keeps blood flowing around the body occurs due to the blood in arteries being higher than that in the veins something that results from their physiological differences. The heart that is the main organ pumping blood does so by rhythmically contracting or relaxing. The contraction of heart muscles sends blood away (systole) where its relaxation allows it to receive blood (Diastole). Consequently, the rhythmic contraction and relaxation is the one that generates blood pressure that keeps blood flowing around the body. A high blood pressure is a risk factor for a number of diseases.

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As the prevalence of blood pressure related health issues became a reality and the need for an appropriate approach to measuring blood pressure became a reality, scientists and health professionals became more concerned. In line with this, a number of publications and experiments were conducted. A review of the literature reveals a lack of a scientific consensus in the right approach and the correct position to measure an individual’s pressure. In line with this, this study was inspired (WHO, 2018). Digital monitors: A cuff is tied to the upper arm and inflated until it is taught about the upper arm. It is then linked to a screen in which the systolic and diastolic pressures are recorded in charts in the screen.

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The pulse rate is also recorded and displayed on the screens. Method During the study, the 16 students sample out for the study had their pressures taken for seven positions: sitting, at reclining position, standing (after 1 minute and after 3 minutes), during an exercise (before and after) consecutively and in cold stress. Both the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressures were recorded. The diastolic and systolic pressure were also taken after individuals stood for a 1 minute: Fig 3: Blood pressure after exercising for 1 minute The results showed that 7 individuals had a high systolic pressure. For diastolic pressure, 5 individuals had a high diastolic pressure. 4 individuals can be said to be of high blood pressure after testing positive in both systolic and diastolic pressures. After standing up for three minutes the results were as in figure 4 below.

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Fig 4: Blood pressure after standing for 3 minute 7 Individuals had a high systolic pressure where: 7 others recorded a high diastolic pressure. Fig: 8 Comparisons of high blood pressure across groups wiyh measurements taken at different positions. To sum up, those who had a high systole and diastole pressure would be categorized as having a high blood pressure. 7 individuals have a high blood pressure (in both systole and diastole) when sitting, 4 have a high blood pressure when reclining, 7 record a high blood pressure both after 1 minute and three minutes standing, 14 record a high blood pressure after an exercise while 12 record a high blood pressure in cold stress. Discussion From the results above, pressure seems to increase significantly when an individual: stood up, exercised or was in cold stress.

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At the three positions, it thus becomes very impossible to record the correct body systolic and diastolic pressure. The use of digital monitors gives the most accurate results. Even then a sphygmomanometer can be used where it becomes too costly to acquire and operate a digital monitor blood pressure measuring equipment a stethoscope would be the least recommended where accurate results are desired but is still recommended incase an health practitioner cannot afford the other two technologies due to costs. Clinical Implications Health practitioners should move fast to adopt the measuring of blood pressure at a reclining position as the only accurate measure of an individual’s pressure and avoid any other position as this will give inaccurate results. Then, health facilities should move fast to adopt the measuring of blood pressure on screens as the most accurate and avoid using stethoscopes that are commonly the ones deployed.

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