MAIN RESOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION IN DELHI

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Health Care

Document 1

Data Gathering 9 5. Budget 10 6 Expected finding/ conclusion 10 7 Bibliography 12 8 Appendix 14 2 State of pollution in the city of Delhi The capital city of India – Delhi is one of the major cities in the world with the high levels of air pollution. According to a survey by the WHO of 1600 cities across the world, it was found out that the quality of air in Delhi could be considered the worst (WHO, 2014). The report observe entire population residing within the city and its environs were living under unhealthy levels of air pollution. Medical reports have lead doctors to label Delhi “smoke chamber” (Rizwan, Nongkynrih, & Gupta, 2013). The air quality is so severe; individuals are discouraged to venture into outdoor activities that may aggravate the persisted air pollution medical conditions reported in the area. Smog is a common sight is Delhi. Causes of pollution The pollution of Delhi’s air is due to a complex mix of sources that range from urban activities to rural agricultural activities. The heavy air contamination arises from human activities and natural causes. The human activities that lead to contamination of the air include; industrial emissions, burning of fuels in residential and commercial places, vehicle emissions. On the other hand, natural sources of pollution could be dust and salt from the sea. The agrarian based agriculture method used in neighboring such as large scale burning of rice fields in preparation of planting season releases smoke and particulate material that can swirled by the wind into the city. Various sources produce differently to the amount of air pollutant in the air.

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To establish the key contributor of pollutant, the research study will seek to establish the high source attributable with production of highest component of Particulate Matter(PM) which is the most common and harmful component of the pollutants in Delhi city (US EPA, 2018). PM10 and PM2. are aerosols with diameter of 10 and 2. micrometer. These aerosols are caused by the combustion-based emission, which are mostly fossil-based fuels. Majority of industries and coal-based power plants are located outside the city of Delhi. While indistries within the city are strategically designed such as the effects of the pollution would be felt only further away. Collect data through desk study. Special attention will be employed on data from environmental organization, international and local government and non-government sources of data on air pollution. Analyze the collected data using data analysis techniques to identify factors that motivate the identified key contributor of pollution, the effects of pollutants on the society as well challenges in eradicating the key cause of air pollution 3.

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Draw conclusion from the findings of the analyzed data to address the key source of air pollution. Propose mitigation measure and recommendation as well as area of improvement on the research recommendations. Khilnani & Tiwari (2018) highlights that extremes levels of air pollution not only aggravate the preexisting medical condition but also affect relatively healthy persons. The healthcare sector has continuously reported increased illness cased associated with the high air pollution level Particulate matter with diameter 2. μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Khilnani, & Tiwari, 2018). The primary pollutant caused by the vehicle are further processed into secondary pollutant when they interact with the atmosphere leading to acid rain, poisonous smog as well as ozone layer depletions.

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According to National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Life expectancy in new Delhi ha reduced significantly by 6 year due that the heavy air pollution (Gulia, Nagendra, Khare & Khanna, 2015). There is need to identity the key cause of air pollution and develop strategies that control air pollution and improve the quality health in the city of Delhi. As a key pollutant combustion of the fossil fuel powered vehicle. On the late stages on 2017, Delhi city attained a new high of air pollution beyond acceptable safety levels, the particulate matter in the city reached hazardous level of 999 milligrams per cubic meter. Despite the amount of particulate matter released by the modern car being in small in quantities, the accumulated quantity released by over 85000 vehicles in Delhi contribute gravely increase in the fine particles that have harmful effect on health and environment (Emissions in India – Road Transport, 2015).

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Delhi register an alarming number of over 650 to 1000 new vehicle very day. It is a known fact that older vehicles are the most polluting. vehicles introduced in 1999 or 2000, when the first set of the Bharat fuel standards(Urbanemissions. info, 2015). The Smog-laden city has toxic level that are aggravated by the cold temperature, which trap and force the particulate matter and other pollutants close to the ground as well as reduce the pollutants dispersion rate (Guttikunda, 2012). Methodologies This research will apply study desk as the main procedure for gathering and analysis of data and information that will be crucial in understanding and realization of the research objectives. Qualitative analysis methods will be used to investigate the key source of pollution in Delhi. It is important to develop relationship of the various concepts and aspect of the research problem so that comprehensive understanding of the problem is achieved.

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Data Gathering Cost effective data collection techniques that will be applied in the research. We have a personal savings fund of 500 GB pound to cater for traveling and accommodation expenses. This will enable us to conduct interviews with the residents of Delhi and understand the effect of vehicle based air pollution on their lives. Expected finding/ conclusion It is imperative for Delhi to provide strict regulation limiting number of cars in the city as well adopt stringent vehicle emission testing practice to reduce the number of particulate matter and unburnt hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The expected research findings include establishing vehicle emissions as the key source of solution in the city of Delhi. Also, the research expected to establish relationship of the effects of air pollution by vehicles on the daily lives of the resident within the city and its environs.

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info. Retrieved 21 February 2018, from http://www. urbanemissions. info/india-emissions-inventory/emissions-in-india-road-transport/ Gulia, S. Nagendra, S. C. Tiwari, P. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions. Current opinion in pulmonary medicine, 24(2), 108-116. Rizwan, S. S. Emissions inventory of anthropogenic PM2. and PM10 in Delhi during Commonwealth Games 2010. Atmospheric Environment, 45(34), 6180-6190. Urbanemissions. Retrieved 21 February 2018, from http://www. who. int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/ Ghude, S. D. Chate, D. Harris, G. Holding your breath in India. New York Times, 29. World Health Organization, 2005. WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. Atmospheric Environment, 42(7), pp. Goyal, P. Present scenario of air quality in Delhi: a case study of CNG implementation. Atmospheric Environment, 37(38), pp. Appendix.

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