Medical Instrument Analysis of The HPQ Form II

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Management

Document 1

The major focus of the HPQ items was on the how one is feeling about their health, ill or healthy, health or feeling conditions of an individual but no about one aspect of health such as the mental, social, physical or psychological well-being of a person. More so, the six construct measurements the HPQ emphasizes encompasses how one perceives their current, previous, and future health outlook, illness resistance or susceptibility, the orientation to sickness which implying the illness conditions as part of your life, and finally the worry or concerns about one's health conditions. Health aspects such as the correlation to health rating are as well explored encompassing the rejecting the sick role and varied attitude about going to the hospital or visiting the physician.

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The eight health concepts under the 32 item health questionnaire survey entails: the functionality of the physical body, body pains, limiting the role of the body as a result ill-health, emotional or personal problems limiting the functioning of the body, emotional health, fatigue or energy, social roles or functioning, and the overall perception of health. The measure as well incorporates independent health measures illuminating the changes in a person's health conditions. Previous studies of HPQ The previous studies on the topic seek to assist in developing a general health rating scale to measure the reliability as well as the validity of the information in assessing the health of a person. Perception could give misleading results in the medical field either through the misinterpretation of the perception in the questionnaire or the respondent delivered wrong data.

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According to McDowell (2006), the early versions of the HPQ depicted the ability of the participants in distinguishing their health conditions across different times, past, present, and predict how their future health condition is likely to be. The outcome of these studies is evident in the construct of the HPQ scale of Prior, current, outlook, resistance/susceptibility, worry/concern. And sickness orientation health. The exception to this was in the scoring of the single item measures on general health perception, although there was no reported evidence of the reliability estimate measures from the studies (Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2003). The information about reliability and stability is limited in measuring the constructed variables such as health perception for more items; the finding suggests that the rating is reliable enough for group comparison and stable enough for repetitive measuring.

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Other studies on HPQ illustrated that there is a relationship between HPQ and time, this is due to the respondents on the health perception required to respond on how their health have been in the past (prior health scale), how it is now (current health measure scale), what it will be in the future (future health outlook) (Salama-Younes et al. The findings on the study of health perception scaling indicated a success based on factor analytics and validity criterion. The consistency in the health perception scale measures in different fields and tests in age, race, income levels, and education achievement support the conclusion on the six health perception scale as a measure. Instrument development and analysis Based on the past studies and research on the HPQ item and measurements, the HPQ was developed that could be used to assess the various hypothesized constructs on the scale.

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The construct sections are as follows current, previous, health future outlook, resistance or susceptibility, and health concern/worry, and the development of scales from the items on the HPQ scale succeeded. The instrument gained support around the world upon its empirical validation of its hypothesized groupings of items on the scale enabling the construction of the survey questionnaire based on the health perception taxonomy. The tests conducted on different demographic groups with varying age, race, sex, income, and education demonstrated consistency in the outcome attracting support and acceptability of the HPQ health scale. The scale could be used in conjunction with other statistical techniques as it displays sufficient various, enabling the use of HPQ to measure the general health in the medical arena.

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For one, the HPQ scale factor analysis as contented by Martin et al, 2006, illustrates that the scales cluster with little overlap with an individual's propensity role as hypothesized. The different scales across the four HPQ constructs enabled the research to gather unique information on the general health rating perception with a straightforward interpretation of the scale of five scores with the exception in the construct of illness resistance/susceptibility score scale. As each scale tended to measure the perceptual constructs as expected, HPQ scale gained validity support in the health sector to measure health perception among the patients. The measuring constructs from diverse and many findings beams the measure of health perception valid due to the easiness in which one can interpret the outcome from the score scale.

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