Reasons humans created societies states and empires

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:History

Document 1

Power also began to be centralized as these societies grew and some created powerful empires that expanded across their respective regions. Some examples include the Roman, Byzantine and Tang Empires which will be highlighted in this paper. From analysis of these empires, it becomes evident that their formation and expansion was influenced by varying reasons. Thus, the aim of this paper will be to analyze why empires, states and societies were created by humans while focusing on the aforementioned empires. II. Rome is a good example whereby it attracted people from both within the country and outside. Nonetheless, agriculture was still a crucial factor as famers in the rural areas were guaranteed that there was a bigger market in Rome and they could exchange their produce for various items. Cities like Rome were also markets that could be accessed by foreign traders who wished to take them to their respective markets.

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Once a group is able to find a habitable location and a reliable source of livelihood such as farming, history has shown that the population is likely to increase. Consequently, roles within the group begin to be divided considering that not everyone can fit in the primary source of income. This class also included religious leaders who acted as mediators between the social classes and leading rituals in the society. The priests in most societies had direct access to the ruler and entire political class. Below these government officials and priests were the businessmen who consisted of merchants and traders whose role was facilitating the exchange of goods within and outside the society. The next group below the businessmen was that of craftsmen and artisans who specialized in production of specific goods and services.

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Under the craftsmen were peasants while slaves lied at the bottom of the hierarchy. For instance, Vibia Sabina born in 83AD is extensively noted as the only lady who had greatest influence over the Roman Empire. She was related to Trajan and later got married to a Roman emperor. Thus, the role of women was greatly defined by the social class in the Roman Empire. However, the society under Tang Dynasty was different. They were regarded as liberal and their women were highly regarded in comparison to 600AD Rome. For instance, counterweight trebuchet, flamethrowers and the incendiary grenade in warfare and the pendentive domes in architecture were developed in the Byzantine Empire. Roman Empire inventions were largely influenced by their expansion plans particularly those of warfare while those of architecture were built to solve local problems.

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The Tang Dynasty had an equally competitive intellectual environment. They were able to introduce gas cylinder, woodblock printing, escapement and air-conditioning fans among other technologies in various fields such as medicine, structural engineering and design. Their invention such as the gas cylinder was influenced by the need to collect and store natural gas. Additionally, the proliferation of its culture into neighboring regions allowed for easy interaction among the countries further promoting trade. The impact of the Tang Dynasty could be felt as far as the Byzantine Empire as the Chinese were able to trade their handcrafts and silk all the way to Europe. Similarly, the Roman Empire used its local resources such agricultural products to feed the locals and foreign traders who came from as far as China to trade. Moreover, they developed their warfare machinery from locally-sourced resources which they used to expand their territory and grow the local economy.

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Mining was also a highly lucrative source of revenue especially for construction which was on high demand during the peak of the empire. Reasons identified include management of resources, control of trade routes, trading, expansion of borders and selling of locally produced items and products. The paper has identified that agriculture ad trade were specifically important factors in creation of societies, empires and states. The Roman Empire was for instance formed as a result of trade along the Tiber River while the Tang Dynasties was formed as a result of trade along the China Silk Road. Similarly, the Byzantine Empire which grew out of the old extensive Roman Empire was a byproduct of the earlier expansion and trade of the Roman Empire. Agriculture was used to feed the expanding population of the empires while at the same time the surplus was used to trade with other products from other regions.

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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Burns, Jasper. Great Women of Imperial Rome. London: Routledge, 2007. Caldwell, Lauren. A Casebook On Roman Family Law. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press, 2004. Grant, Michael. History of Rome. London: Faber, 2001. Berlin: Springer, 2015. Luttwak, Edward. The Grand Strategy Of The Roman Empire: From The First Century A. D. To The Third. Geography Matters In Ancient Rome. London: Raintree, 2015. Waugh, Daniel C. Richthofen’S ‘Silk Roads’: Toward The Archaeology Of A Concept. Ebook.

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