Role of AR based learning in science education
Guiding research question----------------------------------------------------------------------7 1. Overview of the paper---------------------------------------------------------------------------7 1. Definition of augmented reality----------------------------------------------------------------9 1. Image-based AR-----------------------------------------------------------------------11 1. Location-based AR--------------------------------------------------------------------11 1. Learning outcome advantages----------------------------------------------------------------22 3. pedagogical contributions--------------------------------------------------------------------23 4. Influence of AR on science education-----------------------------------------------------------24 4. Merits of using image-based AR in science education-----------------------------------24 4. AR visualization: enhancing conceptual understanding----------------------------------25 4. General Introduction 1. Background In the modern age Science, technology takes up most important part of the educational system. It is impossible to live a comfortable life in the contemporary world without science. Life would be so different and living would be so hard without science. The power of the science is proved everywhere. Larry Johnson, Becker, Estrada, and Freeman (2015) defined these phenomena as technology-enhanced learning (TEL). They pointed out that the use of TEL has been rapid with the use of a computer, mobile, and augmented reality.
Many scholars contend that educational technology becomes effective learning and teaching tool (Hicks, 2011; Kronholz, 2011; Ross et al. , 2010) comparison between traditional teaching pedagogy (e. g. There have been several studies on the use of augmented reality in teaching science studies. One such study is the Akçayır and Akçayır (2017) which examines its merits and its associated challenges. In most of these studies, K-12 students are used as the AR learners. Out of the total SSCI-indexed journals, 51 percent of the selected K-12 students and only 29 percent were university students. Based on cognitive developmental stages by Piaget, early adolescences and elementary students must always use their sight, hearing or other aspects of senses in order to learn (Martin & Loomis, 2013). Not many research related to AR in education have been conducted.
For example, Bacca, Baldiris, Fabregat, and Graf (2014) conducted the meta-analysis of searching AR in education between 2003 and 2013 including six indexed journals which included Computers and Education, Internet and Higher Education, British Journal of Educational Technology, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, International Journal of Computer-Supported, Collaborative Learning. There were only 32 studies related to the AR-based learning. Also, Radu (2014) compared learning in AR or non-AR applications. He only found 36 studies related to the topic. Guiding Research Question To investigate the literature review in regards to how the four features of augmented reality (i. e. , visualization, motivation, interaction, and collaboration) influence science education, these investigation questions should be answered: 1. In the scholarly literature, how does AR visualization feature influences conceptual understanding in a science education? 2.
In the scholarly literature, how does AR authentic content feature influences situated learning in a science education? 3. The second section illustrates how image-based AR is applied to conceptual understanding and situated learning. I will argue why visualization and authentic content among four features of AR are linked to conceptual understanding and situated learning in science education. To corroborate the relation, the case study of conceptual understanding and situated learning in image-based AR will be used to support the argument. In the third section, I will analyze how AR features (i. e. In this reality, either sounds or graphics form the primary projection layer as pointed out by most studies in augmented reality. According to Klopfer and Sheldon(2010) augmented reality refers to the learning in the real world which are lightly augmented via digital information from mobile devices such as phones, for example, augmenting the experience being in some particular location but not necessarily encompassing visual superposition of the virtual information.
Many people are confused between the concept of VR and AR since both can present immersive content. The definition of augmented reality (AR) could be " a virtual reality form (VR) in which the accomplice's head-mounted display is transparent, this allows a clear sight of the actual world" (Milgram, Takemura, Utsumi, & Kishino, 1995). However, some people are often confused about the virtual reality and augmented reality. Whereas, maker less AR is called location-based AR that detects learners by location information through their digital devices. It has mobility feature. More detail information on the definitions will be availed in the preceding sections. Figure 1. Presenting continuum of different level of AR and (Milgram and Kishino, 1994, p. Because students do not need to use a market label, it is an easier way to avail field concepts than image-based AR (McCall, Wetzel, Löschner, & Braun, 2011).
In addition, one of the benefits of using location-based AR is availing real-time information on mobile screen (see Figure 2). Figure 2. Shows how Image-based AR works with maker label (left) and how location-based AR works (right) According to Cheng and Tsai (2013), the location-based Augmented reality is marker-less while the image based type uses pictures as the markers and its possibility is based on the latest advancement in the image recognition technologies. These categories form the basis of the design of the AR resources. Its hardware was made of desktop computers, an AR books with various marker levels within the pages and a webcam. Via the detection of the of the iconic marker on the AR book via the webcam, a 3D virtual geometry was shown on the AR book which was mounted on the computer.
The learners were then expected to participate in the identification of the of the surfaces and the vertex on both the axonometric and orthographic views of the 3D objects and involve in furthers sketch practice to aid in evaluating their spatial abilities. Due to the AR capabilities, the learners were able to freely tilt and rotate the augmented reality book in order to be able to manipulate the 3D whenever they wanted to inspect the objects from a different perspective. From this case scenario of the AR in science learning the learners were empowered in handling the interacting with the 3D geometry without necessarily wearing the headsets. AR systems are also characterized by affordances such as presence, immersion, and immediacy. According to Bronack (2011), these affordances are attributed to some aspects of the immersive use of media in learning such as virtual worlds, and serious games.
Besides the AR includes real-time feedback, which provides for affordances of verbal and non-verbal cues to enhance student is which capitalizes on immediacy (Kotranza, Lind, Pugh, & Lok, 2009). AR combines the learners, virtual objects, and characters in the real world. Besides AR enables superimposition of the virtual objects or information onto the physical objects which enable visualization abstract scientific concepts (Dunleavy et al. Head-mounted devices on the hand are hardly used in education since this technology is expensive for most students. Besides the use of head-mounted devices does lack educational environment appeal(McFarlane, 2013). While the use of Augmented Reality has shown immense growth in science classes teaching science-based, there are a substantial proportion of teachers and schools, which do not use this technology.
Failure to use technology-enhanced teaching methodologies such as AR has plunged such schools into various problems with science disciplines due to their failure to benefit from the use of AR technologies. Until the 1990s, the science classroom was teacher-centered pedagogy which deemphasized students' of learning science through daily experiences (McFarlane, 2013). Some of the scientific concepts are impossible to see while others are unavailable. In the traditional teacher-centered pedagogy system, concepts such as magnetic fields and cosmic waves are impossible to see. Some aspects such as atoms and galaxies are not available for student’s observation due to their sizes. Time may also limit the ability of the students to observe some concepts such as how chemical reactions take place. These concepts end up being too abstract for learners thus inhibiting their understanding.
Skilled teaching is thus active teaching and making provisions for a learning environment characterized by opportunities, tasks, instructions, and interactions, which foster deeper learning. According to Jean Piaget, one of the chief pioneers of constructivist’s theory of knowledge, education is learner-center and allowed teachers to view students as individual learners. Afterward, social constructivism influenced by Vygotsky (1980) suggested that learners construct understanding via social interactions with other people and this process will not happen if the learner is alone. The learners thus have to depend on one another for better understanding, this is possible via the use of interactive affordance of augmented realities (Greeno & Hall, 1997) Constructivism encourages active learning or learning by doing (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark, 2006). Constructivism advocates student-centered learning which requires more active learning (Alesandrini & Larson, 2002).
Based on the theory of constructivism, augmented reality is a great tool for active learning. There are various study areas where augmented studies seem to be critical in ensuring active studies. According to Radu (2014), some of the prominent areas where augmented reality plays a critical role in ensuring active studies include technical skills training program, scientific experiments, games, and analysis of study results. In science education, since the constructivism theory outlines that education is learner-center, by designing scientific experiments such as the Foucault pendulum experiment, which is learner-centered, augmented realities, can be applied to memorize and visualize the pendulum's rotation by printing its successive movements on the ground. Similarly, via the use of augmented realities, the forces present in the pendulum can be represented and the trajectory visualized (Kerawalla et al 2006).
According to the theory of spatial cognition, the student’s spatial knowledge processes and structures can form the basis of an AR research besides the examination of the learners’ spatial abilities. Such concept will aid the science student in improving how they acquire and develop spatial knowledge over time. Merits Of Using AR In Science Education AR technology offers interaction between a virtual and real world (Dunleavy et al. While some science teachers use books to teach students which is more like passive learning, the pedagogy using AR could be more active learning since it allows students to figure out the problems themselves through the interactive activities (Ezike, 2015; Pan, Cheok, Yang, Zhu, & Shi, 2006)). Many teachers have used an interaction as a teaching strategy in order to make the class more engaging or interesting.
These students appear to be happy in the learning process. According to Chiang et. al (2014), the use of mobile device AR approach is capable of improving learning performance. AR approach also improves the learner’s motivation since the technology ensures the learner's positive attitude towards learning thus being satisfied. According to Chiang et al. This contribution of augmented reality to science can be categorized into the image-based AR roles and the location-based AR roles as follows: 4. Influence Of AR On Science Education 4. Merits of Using Image-Based AR in Science Education Visualization in image-based AR helps in understanding the scientific concepts and authentic content in image-based AR thus creating situated learning. First, in science, visualization is the core element to help to solve complex problem due to fact that visualization of information helps us to understand the content quickly and efficiently.
For instance, Lin et al. The process also enhances recall and the ability to master the concepts due to the wide engagement merits associated with the entire process. Other than image-based AR, location-based AR finds its application in science education. This technique is also characterized by various advantages, which add value to science education. Based on the various studies (Klopfer, Perry, Squire, & Jan 2005) it can be deduced that a connection exists between image-based AR and location-based AR and the role they play in science education. Location-based learning is based on the need for the learner to actively interact with the physical environment; therefore, the use of mobile augmented reality, which has location registering technology, is commonly used. Similar finding on by various studies such as (Dunleavy et al.
, 2009; Facer et al. , 2004; Klopfer & Squire, 2008; Perry et al. , 2008; Squire & Jan 2007) also showed the positive impact of location-based AR in learning. Through Location-based AR, it is possible for the students to learn outside the classroom thus availing an opportunity for the students to make inquiries on the scientific concepts with the help of the virtual information based on the real phenomena or real-world environment thus improving understanding(Cheng & Tsai, 2012). Besides in an authentic environment characterized by actual phenomena, location-based AR triggers the learner’s prior knowledge thus enhancing their comprehension of the socially situated character of the of the scientific study. For example, in Klopfer and Squire (2008)'s researcher, they conducted the research on high school and university students to explore scientific phenomena which possess a great challenge to experience in the real world.
The participants played a role-playing in investigating a simulated ‘chemical spill within watershed'. According to Rosenbaum, Klopfer, & Perry ( 2007)assessment on authenticity, the affordances of handheld devices such as mobile phones which are portable can be structured to yield inquiry-based activities which allow the students to interact with one another and the real environment. Correspondingly, location-based systems (Squire & Jan 2007) plus situated education systems (Dunleavy et al. , 2009; Dunleavy et al. Kozma (2003) contends that visualization on scientific courses is important to facilitate a deeper understanding of the context. For example, if students see the abstract concepts such as molecular atom in chemistry or electricity in engineer(Wu et al. , 2013), they will understand the concepts properly and precisely. Due to an advantage of using AR visualization, students are likely to use and benefit from AR more than the traditionally listening to lecture in a classroom (Cheng & Tsai, 2012; Munoz-Cristobal et al.
Shelton and Stevens (2004) conducted the AR activity for 15 students, in order to improve their conceptual understanding of earth-sun relationships. They employed image-based augmented reality system with Head Mounted Display to offer the astronomical content. They conducted a videotape analysis in order to examine learners' conceptual change involving astronomy and found that students successfully understood the concepts of the augmented reality activity. Furthermore, AR visualization can increase spatial understanding(Linn, 2003). By increasing spatial understanding, AR eliminates the challenges associated with conceptual understanding which are common in traditional teaching methods. E. Shelton & Hedley, 2002). This visualization aspect is important in aiding conceptual understanding because the learners can increase enthusiasm and pioneering sense, independence. For example, Kaufmann and Schmalstieg (2003)experimented by using AR application called Construct 3D.
The AR tool enables students to solve the mathematics or geometric problem with peers. Other than its merits in aiding conceptual comprehension, augmented reality also plays an important role in ensuring content authenticity, which in turn creates a situated learning. Augmented Reality provides students with an immersion sense that is subjective to the impression an individual is taking part in an explicitly realistic experience as pointed out by (Dede, 2009). According to Dede (2009), situated learning can gain the cognition of how we can deal with difficulties, concerns, and environments in the real world. For instance, Klopfer and Squire (2008) conducted the research by using image-based AR. Students took a role-playing as scientists, environmental activists with an objective of comprehending the situated nature of the process involved in most of the scientific investigations.
In other words, students will change attitude when they are more engagement in AR activity. By improving student’s engagement, a projection that when AR programs are aimed at enhancing situated learning in science education then definitely success is bound as teachers strive to achieve academic goals of science classes. With augmented information such as visualizing nuclear radiation or warning about hazardous areas are issued to the students and workers in such areas before they start to work. (Eursch, 2007) insists that it helps labors to increase awareness of what they should do and should not do. Without augmented reality, such safety aids the dangerous scientific areas would not be possible. They created a virtual chemistry laboratory to practice the dangerous chemical practical.
With AR technology, learners will be more engaged and motivated in controlling virtual materials from varied perspectives (Kerawalla et al. As outcomes of situated learning, motivation will be increased (Walker & Greene, 2009). This is attributed to the fact that an individual’s motivation relates to his or her ability to learn (Von Glasersfeld, 1998). The more learners complete a challenge, the more the learners gain confidence and motivation. Role of AR in scientific inquiry learning Due to the mobility of location-based AR, collaborative inquiry-based scientific can be effected in various different selected science education studies some of which include (Dunleavy et al. 2009; Rosenbaum et al. 2007; Squire and Klopfer 2007; Squire and Jan 2007). In these studies, there are cases of scientific studies, which involved various scientific inquiries for example in Squire and Jan (2007) gray anatomy was presented in line with the Alien Contact case.
In the curriculum's commencement, a scenario in which the gray whale was stranded at the beach was presented. First, augmented reality meant for face-to-face collaboration lets users to collaboratively see 3D virtual models together through an (HMD). The researchers mentioned that this collaborative AR interface could have communication similar to face-to-face communication since they are physically in the same space. Second, augmented reality for remote collaboration is a similar concept of virtual video live chat. The researcher reported that this method shows a significantly higher sense of presence while the participants were living in AR conferencing. Collaborative augmented reality can increase the learning outcomes on science education (. The researcher insists that social interactivity could be high when students collaborate with AR.
It is because even though the students use the AR devices, they still need to communicate to complete the collaborative task together. In the process, the students independently figure out the tasks or share with their peers. The students will gain a sense of responsibility and construct knowledge (Birchfield & Megowan-Romanowicz, 2009) 5. Challenges of using AR in education 5. This is owed to the fact that the learners have to deal with the technologies they are not well versed with besides the complicated tasks. Besides, in the cases of an absence of well-designed interfaces or protocols to guide the teachers and students, there are cases of inability of the learners of the learners making real world environment (Squire & Jan 2007). Furthermore, in augmented reality, the number of devices used the higher the device failure are likely to occur.
Maintenance of the stability of the various devices used in the study is thus very critical. According to Dunleavy et al. Just like other various educational innovations in the classroom, the AR classrooms encounters constraints from both the schools and teachers. AR associated learning activities are always characterized by innovative approaches which include participatory simulations and even studio based pedagogy. The nature of the instructional approach involved in AR is however different from the teacher-centered and delivery-based which the conventional teaching methods are as pointed out by (Kerawalla et al. , 2006; Mitchell, 2011; Squire & Jan 2007). Institutional challenges such as an obligation to cover a given amount of syllabus content over a given period of time make the implementation of AR innovation challenging (Kerawalla et al.
, 2009; Klopfer & Squire, 2008; Perry et al. They might need to learn how to control AR at the same time they learn the subject through the AR. Cheng and Tsai (2012)recommended that learners might have mental overload because of material and complexities of tasks. As a result, if students take extra time on AR technology rather than the actual content, the learning outcomes would not be effective. Another concern of AR use in education is novelty effect (Gavish et al. Besides AR, makes provisions for a situation in which reality and fantasy are blended which is likely to result in students or learner’s confusion. According to Klopfer (2008), some learners tend to forget how far the game goes and when to get engrossed in the learning process.
In most cases, the learners lose focus of what they are supposed to be studying and instead get fully engrossed into the game part leading to undesired results, which can threaten the learner's physical safety 6. Conclusion This paper explains the relation between AR-based learning and science education. The four AR advantages can supplement the lack of science education, for example, insufficient visualization to explain the abstract concept, lack of motivation, interactivity, and collaboration (H. , 2009) Hence, while the image-based AR has mostly visualization and motivation benefits, the location-based AR has interaction and collaboration benefits. Beyond these positive effects of using AR technology in science education, further studies needs to be conducted on how we can mitigate the challenges of AR such as technical difficulty and information overload for students and leading to its better use.
Based on the analysis of the previous concepts presented in this paper including analysis and the discussion of the AR empirical studies to deduce the impacts of AR in science learning, it is clear AR creates affordability, which gives a room for integration of multiple technologies. Besides the analysis, also shows that augmented studies have a great potential of supporting teaching and learning especially in the field of science. Besides the available empirical studies on augmented reality shows some limitations in terms of the research designs and the validity of the available evidence. The common challenges from these studies include technological drawbacks where the use of the devices in either image-based or location-based augmented reality can be a problem to either the learner or the teacher.
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