THE ROLE OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AMONG INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE STUDENTS
Gonzales, Dr. Lozano, Dr. Chung, and Mr. Shigenaga. They took their precious time amidst their busy schedule to make this research process a success. The findings are then explored based on a broad analysis of evidence to find the role played by extrinsic motivation on the success of international students in learning English as a second language. This research paper farther focuses on discussing different ways through which educators (Teachers) can avail different opportunities to their students so that they can be extrinsically motivated towards learning English as a second language. Chapter one of this thesis gives introduction by exploring the definition of motivation, types of motivation and focusing on extrinsic motivation, the research problem, purpose of study and research questions are all provided in this chapter.
Chapter two is the literature review of theories and studies on the impact of extrinsic motivation in student learning and explores among other things, the hypothesis, and expected benefits, how teaching strategies influence extrinsic motivation and how motivation can influence the learning of English as a second language among international students. Chapter three presents data and data analysis of the research paper and chapter four is the conclusion and possible recommendations of how extrinsic motivation can be enhanced in education teaching process as well as among international students learning English as a second language. 5 Limitations and Delimitations of Research Methods. 8 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 9 2. 1 Background Information 9 2. 2 The Theoretical Basis for the Study 9 2. 3 Hypothesis and Expected Benefits of Extrinsic Motivation 12 2. , 2010, p. Broussard et al.
, (2004) in their journal “The relationship between classroom motivation and academic achievement in elementary school-aged children,” define motivation as “the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something” (p. Essentially, there are two types of motivations: intrinsic and extrinsic. “Intrinsic motivation energizes and sustains activities through the spontaneous satisfactions inherent in effective volitional action. Therefore, TESOL’s motivation is a fundamental issue which creates a distinctive way which teachers should seek to make students realize their academic targets. Statement of the Problem Statistics show that, “as of the 2002–2003 academic year, 10. 2% of all U. S. students were considered limited-English proficient (LEP) students or English learners” (Callahan, 2005, p. The face to face method of instruction of students in the classroom is only applicable to the physical interaction of the teacher and student in a classroom setting.
This setting only needs superficial and limited methodologies of teaching. Therefore, this calls for the motivation of students by either innate abilities or through external stimuli. Extrinsic motivation, which informs the objective of this study, is “the external stimulus which can be used to drive or inspire a person to achieve desired outcomes” (Burden, 2004). Purpose of the Study While intrinsic motivation leads to significant increase in the development of students' interest for success or pleasure, extrinsic motivation encourages better performance by initiating the desire to achieve a set goal and objective. According to Hajhashemi et al. , (2017), it is important for a teacher to understand that he or she is responsible for the motivation of students in getting to learn English as a second language.
It is imperative for teachers to assist students in learning English as a second language because it creates an integrative and competitive learning environment for the students. Face to face learning of students can be monotonous, which can in turn make students fail in their overall learning objectives. Learning can be challenging since it is a process which is affected by many internal and external factors, both to the students and the teachers. Limitations and Delimitations of Research Methods The research will not undertake an empirical approach, or have interactions with college students. It will however use the hypothetical approach in giving conclusions to the role of extrinsic motivation on students learning a foreign language. Therefore, the conclusions will have a possibility of not being the actual aspect of the role of motivation in learning English as a second language.
Another limitation is that the research will only cover international students. The research will be undertaken by international students who are learning English as a second language in the United States. This was an increase from the previous year where there were 4. 5 million students. Many of the students consider this since learning has been affected by the united states due to educational programs introduced during the times of President Obama. The country which has the highest numbers of English learners is the Netherlands. When compared with other countries the Netherlands has a rate of 72% of students who are studying English as a second language. According to Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, (1991) the theory distinguishes between the two basic kinds of motivation; intrinsic and extrinsic motivational aspects in language learning.
They denote that extrinsic motivation, in this case, is the ability of the person to have expectations of external rewards from his or her efforts to achieve certain obligations. The self-determination theory stipulates that it give an interesting attitude to the learning of first English to instructors and students (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier & Ryan, 1991). Rather than having a focus on how teachers in a classroom setting can motivate their students, the self -determination theory sets its focus on how people can create a condition or environment which can increase the level of motivation in the learning process argues Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, (1991). According to Noel, (2001) this line of focus to place the extrinsic form of motivation in line with the way it can be classified along three lines of motivation according to the extent which a student’s wants regarding fulfillment of educational goals and objectives.
Therefore, the behaviorists must come up with specific terms to explain the phenomena which involve extrinsic motivation components such as self-determination and respondent conditioning (Shaikholeslami & Khayyer, 2006). Responded conditioning then comes as a second theory which advances extrinsic motivation in the learning of English by international students. Respondent conditioning, in this case, should not be confused with the one which was advanced and exemplified by Pavlov. However, according to Shaikholeslami and Khayyer (2006) respondent conditioning in learning of language can be in such a way that the teacher uses incentives to motivate the learners every time the teacher requests the students to do a task. Respondent comes into play when the students show enthusiasm when they are attempting the task. This is in the context where students have the desire to achieve better results than others and achieve a performance which is obtained from a personal conviction of success.
For example, a student trying to avoid an adverse judgment or attempting to have a positive judgment on themselves. Lastly, according to Bastidas Arteaga (2006), the social goal benefit where the student will have the desire to learn so that he or she can post behaviors and characteristics which are regarded as socially accepted. In this case, the student is motivated to obtain a socially accepted outcome. For example, a student can pursue learning English as a second with an objective of achieving academic excellence. Extrinsic motivation is one way of increasing competition among students. Motivated students have the desire to learn and feel responsible for their learning process (Bastidas Arteaga, 2006). The main objective of international students learning English as a second language is to be proficient in both oral and written English.
Therefore, motivating students in the way will arouse the competitive nature of students to ensure that they attain the highest proficiency possible. Competition is one way of ensuring that students will achieve higher educational goals, which then calls for a healthy relationship between teachers and students themselves (Bastidas Arteaga, 2006). Many people feel out of place because when they are conversing in other languages and therefore, there is a need for motivation (Bastidas Arteaga, 2006). Motivation will, therefore, enable students to gain confidence in learning because they are aware of the short-term and long-term rewards of learning English as a second language. Confidence in learning is paramount to any students and will affect how they perform in learning. Reasons for Studying English as Second Language At this age of globalization and modern age, knowing speaking in another language is a crucial skill.
However, it is imperative that people to consider which language to study and be proficient. Travelers, business people, learning and other mediums of information use English mostly as their language of communication. There is more impact on those people who speak English because the only people which speak Chinese mandarin are those who live in America or China. This means that the rest of the world is then left for English to be used as a medium of communication. Therefore, English has been made as the default means of communication to people who meet globally. In places where there are many languages are spoken, for example in India where there are 750 languages spoken, English is used as a means of unifying the people.
Barkhuizen, (2011) notes that in this case, there is a chance that a person who learns English will have the sense of personal fulfillment and achievement. Most of the words best films, music, and TV shows are done in English. Therefore, as a means of entertainment one must learn English to be able to enjoy them. Also, speaking English will enable one to interact with people in other parts of the world when traveling, and interacting with diverse cultures. 5 Why English Learners as Second Language Drop-Out Research by the University of California found out that international students who study English as a second language have a dropout rate of 11%. This includes aspects such as the teacher, the classroom environment and other factors of learning which do not arouse the desire of learning as a second language (Phakiti & Li, 2017).
Motivation is a critical aspect of learning, and therefore, its absence would then mean that students will perform poorly, drop out of school and fail in their academic goals. 6 Reality of the classroom and extrinsic motivation In extrinsic motivation for college students, there are several issues which determine the context of the motivation of students learning English as a second language in the classroom. In learning English as a second language, the students should be aware of the purpose of knowing the language and how to be motivated (Feng &, Chen, 2009). They should understand that the purpose of recognizing the language is not for educational purposes only but also for communication. The researcher found that a student who has positive experiences of learning English have increased self-confidence in the prospect of using the language as a second language.
This is a subject which applies to those people who have fewer interactions with the native speakers of the English language. Language learning in clubs, classroom, and other activities may imbue learners with familiarly, fluency and knowledge of the language. It, therefore, shapes the attitude of the learner in the prospects of future use of the language. It can be understood that English learners are motivated differently and depending on their level of self-confidence and achievement in the learning process (Wu& Wu, 2008). There were different experiences in the classroom which was a result of the diverse interests of students learning English as a foreign language (Burden, 2004). Their recommendations suggested that teachers must introduce specific learner instructions strategies if they are to be able to gain educational achievements on extrinsic motivation.
The other aspect which is fundamental is the ability of the learners to have interactive aspects of communications within themselves. This is in the sense that learners should be given priority to learn from the mistakes of others and have a chance to interact freely within the context of learning English as a foreign language. Interactive interaction and good communication between the teacher and the students is an essential feature for the motivation of learners in learning English as a language as a second language. Interactive classes are highly favored by students who are studying English as a second language. Data obtained from research conducted on Strategic Inventory of Language Learning showed that students embrace learning process which uses the active naturalistic use of the second language in daily activities (Morell, 2004).
This venture makes the students develop an attachment to the language, and peer motivating comes into play as all the students are actively involved in the learning process. An interactive classroom is essential for learners who require gaining competence and proficiency in English as a second language. 7 Impact of teaching strategies and extrinsic motivation The strategies of instruction can influence student's involvement and engagement in the learning of English as a second language. A teacher can achieve this by creating a universal design which will then be appropriate in developing environments and products which are best suited for those purposes (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Having a universal design for the teacher gives the students multiple ways of representation and facilitates a better way of engagement and expression.
This would then motivate the student to access the content of the curriculum, process, and product which would then ensure that students get what they desire to learn (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). This then provides better ways in which students learning English as a foreign language will learn and demonstrate what they have already learned in class. Therefore, acknowledging of different learning styles of students acts as an extrinsic motivating factor which would ensure that learning process is conducive for all students. The learner's interaction increased the proficiency in the oral skills of the students. The ability of students to learn how words are pronounced motivates students to pursue more involving and complex issues of language learning and acquisition (Al, 2004). In this case, students were encouraged by interacting with other learners, online learning content, and teachers.
Students can become responsive and expressive when they are using technology in interactions. It is in this case that teacher have to seek ways in which they can integrate technology in learning English as a foreign language (Al, 2004). The teacher needs to understand that he or she is the greatest contributor the motivational aspect of students. Many students are influenced by other factors outside the classroom, but the teacher must keep the students motivated in learning English as a second language (Papi & Abdollahzadeh, 2012). The teacher has to maintain the initial interests which encouraged the students to enroll in learning English as a second language. Qualifications, dedication and personal motivation to the teacher is a requirement to create a learning environment which can enable learners to achieve their educational goals in education.
Teachers and learning institutions need to develop strategies which would promote learning, motivate students and give them the necessary impetus to pursue their educational goals in learning English as a second language (Papi & Abdollahzadeh, 2012). Out of the total number of students examined, 83% showed a positive impact of extrinsic motivation with only 17% showing a positive inclination towards intrinsic motivation. This is quite consistent with the research findings from other studies as captured under discussion of the results section. The interview conducted had predetermined extrinsic motivational reasons that influenced students to engage in learning of English as a second language. These included aspects such as family, assimilation the society, college motivation, job, motivation just to pass their English class, love for English language, travel, and inner joy.
The data was collected and drafted into a tally table as shown below. In this case, students will be able to develop a more robust and more profound kind of thinking which is essential to learning. When learning new vocabulary, it was realized that students need to know more about the word, not just knowing its meaning. In this case, a deeper understanding would include students knowing how to spell the word, how it can be used in a sentence, words which are like it, its opposite words and use the word in real communication either verbally or written. It is the teacher's dream to have every student to be motivated. However, it is a reality for every teacher to realize that not every student can be equally motivated.
Students need to have the feeling of needing to achieve in learning of English as a second language. Dörnyei & Ushioda, (2009) realized that every student needs to have self-security and confidence, self-efficiency, self-esteem, and anxiety. The other level which is critical for the student learning is the one learner situation. Studies found out that there are several factors which are at interplay at this level. This includes the motivating potential of learning English. The research found out that students had several subdivisions in learning English as a second language. The following aspects regarding motivation were realized by (Rumboll, 2013): i. To progress in their fields of work, one had to get extrinsic motivation on professional motivation. ii. To have access to a foreign community one had to have integrative motivation in his or her studies.
ii. Mastery of English as language has adaptive capacities which are essential in proficiency in language speaking and writing. iii. The antecedents of the students regarding his or her motivation have a direct impact and influence on how the student is motivated. These antecedents include the desire to achieve an educational goal, relevance of the educational goals and self-efficiency or awareness. Feng, & Chen, (2009) used to study student’s ability to the attitudes of students towards learning of English as a second language. In this case, it is the existing relationship between the students and the behavior of the students towards learning and their attitude in learning English as a second language. Studies which had been conducted in various countries found that there is are greater variability of in those schools in the rural areas and urban areas.
Studies conducted Burden (2004) showed the relationship between the cultural distance and students motivation. It can be noted that Europeans had a more integrative motivation than African, Asian and Middle Eastern countries. • Continue studies by to advance knowledge. • Get in touch with other opinion leaders in the world. • Have access to a wider variety of books and maps on an international scale. Gardner (1983) showed that there was a relationship between the attitude of students learning English as a second language and extrinsic motivation. The research found out that international students had a higher affinity for global attitude. Cognitive psychology theory application to students denoted that internal beliefs, processes and mental representation in determining the way in which people would behave in certain ways (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan,1991).
It was then realized that motivation in studying English as a foreign language was a psychosocial matter based on the nature of sociolinguistic aspect. Therefore, teachers must induce motivation in such a way that it can facilitate learning for communicating needs. It was noted that international students who are motivated usually exhibit the interest or the desire to learn English as a foreign language. This is an interest which is then followed by the efforts of the students and their ability to achieve academic goals. Many students will have the desire to learn, but they will luck the drive to achieve the educational goals which he or she desired. Many students will feel satisfied if they achieve the educational goals which they can gain from learning English as a second language.
It was found out that students who failed to achieve these academic goals were more inclined and contemplated to drop out of school. Dörnyei and Ushioda (2011) argued that lack of achievement would make an international student to fail, inhibit and prevent a student gaining insight from extrinsic motivation. The internal environment of the classroom was identified as one of how contributed to the failure of students in learning English as a second language. In this case, the effectiveness of extrinsic motivation was effective if it had the following contribution to the success of the students (Feng, & Chen,2009). Language learning and extrinsic motivation were influenced by the attention in which the student will pay in learning the tasks and content which is being delivered in the classroom.
The success of the student was also dependent on the way students are committed, responsible and how they identify with the learning and teaching process. The other factor was on self-regulation on learning of English as a second language because it informed the level of success which the student will achieve in the long run (Feng, & Chen,2009). It was noted that the use of technology greatly motivated students to learn English as a second language. How teachers perceive students’ can have a dramatic change in the way in which technology can be integrated into the classroom. The teacher will act less than lectures and act as couches which will increase both desires of the teacher to disseminate information and students to learn (Al, 2004).
The use of technology can be used to foster the collaboration among international students in the manner that it can cause positive achievement in learning of English as a second language. 3 Research Implications This research found out that the role of in material for students learning English as the second language had a profound way of ensuring the success of students. Students are affected by the learning environment and the level of involvement of the teacher in learning. In this case, the metacognitive theory is fundamental to the understanding of how extrinsic motivation affects learning. More in learning was based on the behavioral perspective which includes learning of English as a second language. Motivation is not tangible, and therefore psychoanalytic perspectives are critical in understanding on language and other factors which affect learning.
Chapter 4: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION For quite some time, learning of a second language has been under-researched by many scholars over the centuries. Many of them had recognized the fundamental role of motivation in learning of the second language among students. According to recent research by the year 2025, there would be ten billion people on earth who will be speaking English language (Kozaki & Ross, 2011). Therefore, it is prudent for an international student to find the right motivating factors which would aid them in gaining proficiency in learning the English language. Therefore, this paper will explore the role of extrinsic motivation to international college students who are learning English as a second language. Teaching English to speakers of other languages require several inputs which a teacher must employ to motivate students to learn and post good results.
Learners usually need quality instructions, interactions, inputs, avenues of commendable output to maintain progress and motivates students in learning (Rumboll, 2013). Motivation, in this case, is dictated by many factors which are intertwined and have tremendous effects on the motivational level of the students (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). Learning English as a second language requires one to have the necessary motivating factors to keep them going and providing the right attitude needed to attaining positive educational goals. Extrinsic motivation can influence students to gain the encouragement necessary for posting good grades. It can be deduced that motivation is an energizer for human behavior and that each teacher has to take this matter as of interest to their students. Extrinsic motivation serves as a dimension which is significant in learning of languages (Papi & Abdollahzadeh, 2012).
There are several ways in which educators can provide extrinsic motivation to students. One of the ways is ensuring that teachers provide students with the usefulness of the language. TESOL teachers can increase the level of the motivation of students in making sure that students have a way in which learners can find the usefulness of studying the English language as a second language (Rumboll, 2013). As a means of motivation, teachers have to find ways in which they can increase the attitude of learners in studying it. Teachers have to find ways in which they can make the learning of English personal. Wu (2008) argues that teachers should also promote the autonomy of the learners and encourage them to make personal initiatives to ensure that they have engaged positively with each other and learning process.
They held the belief that teachers should also have the capacity to influence the students in having a personalized process of learning and ensuring that students are familiar with the English culture. Teacher motivation, therefore, can be termed as a fundamental aspect of learner motivation in learning English as a second language. Teachers have to create a rapport for learning of English a second language in the motivation has to be taken to a personal level. For a teacher, having a real conversation with students will create a connection between the educator and the students which will then increase the level of motivation to students. TESOL Journal, 5(1), 32-57. Al Jarf, R. The effects of web-based learning on struggling EFL college writers.
Foreign Language Annals, 37(1), 49-57. Ali, R. A Framework to Understanding Motivation in the TESOL Field. PROFILE 7, 147-159. Burden, p. An examination of attitude change towards the use of Japanese in a university English ‘conversation’ class. Class, 35(1), 21 - 36. Dörnyei, Z. , & Ushioda, E. Motivation, language identity, and the L2 self. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Dörnyei, Z. http://dx. doi. org/10. 5539/elt. v4n2p46 Gardner, H. Society, 53(5), 523-530. http://dx. doi. org/10. 1007/s12115-016-0060-2 Hajhashemi, K. , & Ross, S. Contextual Dynamics in Foreign Language Learning Motivation. Language Learning, 61(4), 1328-1354. http://dx. doi. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Nassaji, H. Participation Structure and Incidental Focus on Form in Adult ESL Classrooms. Language Learning, 63(4), 835-869.
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