Document Type:Coursework

Subject Area:Health Care

Document 1

Low back pain (LBP) can affect human being at any stage of life, not necessarily at old age but basically at the age of 45 to 55 years. On the other hand, Sarcopenia (a disease that is associated with aging process, which results in the loss of the skeletal muscle mass (approximately 0. 5 – 1% loss of skeletal muscle mass per year after the age of 50 years) and loss of muscle strength and body function for the elderly people), also leads to several physical symptoms and also contributes to reducing the quality of life of elderly people. Sarcopenia, a term proposed by Rosenburg in 1989 referring to the age‐related decline in lean body mass, has become a relatively well‐known condition among researchers and physicians. There are multiple adverse health outcomes that are associated with this condition, these outcomes include; physical disability, poor quality of life and premature death.

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The neologisms sarcopenia, meaning “loss of flesh,” was first described in 1989 to refer to the age-related involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Since then, the concept of sarcopenia has become widely accepted and used in the field of gerontology to identify physical, metabolic, and functional impairment in elderly persons. Baumgartner assumed the muscle masses of the 4 limbs from a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan to determine the appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM). They then defined a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) as ASM/height2 (kg/m2), and proposed cutoff points of AMI by sex. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of sarcopenia increased from 13% to 24% in persons under 55 years of age to >50% in person over 45 years of age and was associated with physical disability in both men and women.

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These receptors elicit pain signals upon activation by acid, causing bone pair. Furthermore, osteoporosis modifies the 5-HT receptor to exhibit hyperalgesia due to the contribution of the serotonergic system. Thus, osteoporosis medication, such as calcitonin, selective estrogen receptor modulator, and bisphosphonate, were reported to reduce osteoporotic pain. Recently, sarcopenia was also observed to occur with increasing age and may cause pain; therefore, systemic aging changes as causing chronic pain have clinical implications. The primary purpose of this study is to examine differences in the appearance of sarcopenia as an age-related systemic change in older adults with LBP, and to evaluate the relationship between the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and chronic pain. The two approaches above are most appropriate because they focus on the analytically disclosing the meaning and thus making the practices of human subjects, while showing how showing clearly how these studies arrange so that they can be used in generating the observable outcomes, analyzing data and making conclusion to the matter.

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Also, the approaches makes it possible to recognize the connection between the main issue under study and the results that are obtained from the study. It is expected there will be no substantial statistical differences in the baseline characteristics between the two study groups for age and height. Body weight in the lower back pain group will be significantly lower, while body mass index will be almost similar. It is also expected that there will be significant differences in trunk muscle strength, including lumbar extension and flexion, between the two groups. 6 Skeletal muscle Index in Kg/m2 21. 5 Conclusion Elderly women aged 45 to 55 years with Lower Back Pain (LBP) have significantly lower skeletal muscle mass since Sarcopenia are considered to be associated with back pain.

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