THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
His works were profoundly influenced by Freud's psychoanalysis. However, while Freud focused on the conflict between the Id and the ego, Erikson emphasized on the role of the environment and conflicts surrounding the ego. According to him, there are eight phases of psychosocial development. At each stage, there is a social crisis that shapes human personality positively or negatively, depending on how people interact with the environment (Marcia, 2016). This paper seeks to highlight Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development and how they shape individual personalities. Parents who provide an encouraging environment for children to explore and use their talents help them gain autonomy. Doing everything for a child causes a child to doubt their abilities and become highly dependent on others.
A successful transition of this phase elicits will (Zhang, 2015). The third stage presents initiative vs. guilt and goes from the age of three to five years. It occurs during adolescence from twelve to eighteen years. Teenagers begin to discover personal identity by exploring their values and beliefs. They become more independent and begin to learn roles that they will occupy as adults. Failure to find personal identity results to role confusion, which involves uncertainty about who they are or their place in society. The virtue of fidelity is adopted upon a successful transition (Newman & Newman, 2012). The essential virtue produced is care (Watson, Stonebarger, Dunton, & Teaching Company, 2002). In the last stage, integrity versus despair arise. People in this stage are at sixty-five years or older.
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