Voynich Manuscript Research Paper
DATE………………………………………. COPYRIGHT All right reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means including photocopying or other mechanical methods without prior written permission of above members. Copyright 2017 DEDICATION To my lovely friends who’s without they never ending love and sympathy this work could not have been accomplished ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. I would like to thank Almighty creator for His guidance and protection throughout my study period at the university, families especially my parent and friends, and my supportive supervisor ABSTRACT. TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents DECLARATION 2 COPYRIGHT 3 DEDICATION 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 3 ABSTRACT. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 LIST OF FIGURES 6 CHAPTER ONE 6 1. 0 Introduction. 2 Statement problem 8 1. 1 HISTORY 20 2. 1 Introduction 20 2. 2 The Black Plague 20 2. 2 THEORIES ON THE VOYNICH MANUSCRIPT 26 2. 1 Glossolalia 26 2. 3 Morphological structure 40 CHAPTER FOUR 44 4.
0 Data analysis. 44 CHAPTER FIVE 50 5. 0 Conclusion 50 5. 1 Recommendations 53 References 55 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Last page of Voynich Manuscript 44 Figure 2: Section of the last page of the manuscript, animal image and letters 45 Figure 3: Section of the last page, letters 46 Figure 4: Section of the last page, strings 46 Figure 5: Section of the last page, Capricorn 47 Figure 6: image of a naked woman on the last page 47 CHAPTER ONE 1. However this story is real and historians through carbon-dated analysis believes that the script originated from Northern Italy. Although the actual date is not verified the skin on which it was written on was carbon-dated back to 15th century. In 1912 a book dealer Wilfred Voynich purchased the book and it was named after him (Arutyunoy, et al. He dedicated his rest of his life trying to figure the information hidden in this texts yet the man died without a single clue on what the script was about.
After his death, the book ended in a Beinecke Rare book and manuscript library at Yale University (Delay, 2015). 6) Cosmological-circular diagram of obscure nature This review is meant to help us understand the history of the typescript. I will also present the various studies and researchers regarding the manuscript such the accomplishment of two computer engineers Grzegory Kondrak and Bradley Hauer who shows that the script was written initially in Hebrew. Also, I will show similar findings made in the numerous undertaken scrutiny that will help us come up with or improve the existing theories on the content of the codex. More this review will help us understand the real origin of the book and follow its advancement closely to the modern day.
2 Statement problem The main of the purpose of this thesis will implore decoding the first digit of the VSM and determine the possible letter that could stand for those texts. Decoding the script will amplify the relationship in many field of study such as botany and linguistics, architect and engineering. In my opinion cracking of one of this field will lead to the understanding of the other. For instance proper understand of the botanic and herb in the book will be as a result of decoding the text and is directly dependent on the linguistics and as such the field of medicine will improve. the science behind this study could shine more light on the use of herbs. 6 Scope of study The predominant technique used in this study is data mining.
Again, the community that used this script is said to have gone extinct making it impossible to have references. For the same argument, our data will rely on second-hand information 1. 8 Definition of terms 1) Codex-an ancient manuscript text written in book form 2) Vellum-fine parchment made from animal skin. Especially that of a calf. 3) Cryptographers- the act of writing or unraveling codes. 1 Introduction Over an extended period, there have been several research carried out to determine the origin and the language used in writing of the Voynich Manuscript. The Voynich manuscript is an old book that was purchased many years ago commonly illustrated with coded structures in unknown hand-written language. The Famous book is named after Wilfred Voynich, a known book dealer who acquired the book back in 1912.
Due to its old age, the book has approximately 240 remaining pages since some have gone missing. Voynich Manuscript is famously known to have its characters written from left to right, and it contains various diagrams that contribute to the mysteries surrounding it (Voynich manuscript, 2015). The word length and morphological structure in the letter bring about key factors when it comes to analysis. Jorge Stolfi in his website shows some a comparable outlook between how the words have been distributed in length between the Eastern Asian Languages and the Voynich Manuscript. Jorge achieves this by showing the close similarities found regarding morphological structure, demonstrating similarity in prefix, mid-fix, and suffix of the structure. Also, he goes ahead to demonstrate the crust-mantle core paradigm of the Voynich Manuscript ("III.
The Voynich Cipher Manuscript Of Roger Bacon: Sketch of Its Contents," 1928). They attempted to give their findings and discussion regarding the report but later agreed that indeed the Voynich Manuscript require more research for their report to be considered as valid by other professionals working on the Voynich Manuscript (Buonafalce, 2007). 2 English Investigation. Most research carried out had not looked thoroughly into the Manuscript the possibility of having to catalog of English characters as alphabetical or non- alphabetical Entropy. However, by the properties of word length, reoccurrence of words, morphology and the word structure presented the possibilities of having the categorization. The bigram frequencies were used to help in the judgment of the letter identification, how often the words or non-words appeared.
The method was used to acquire the probability of there being an n-gram. This process involved summing up the reoccurrence of n-grams and then dividing it by the total number of the samples tested. For accuracy, they also went ahead to include two other methods, the deleted estimation, and good-turning methods. The results of each method were then compared with the initial maximum likelihood estimator as a way of finding any resemblance and possible similarities. Church and Gale concluded that, the advanced methods had the advantage over the old methods. In the Voynich Manuscript, the word association metric was used. The word association metrics method varied significantly and it incorporated statistical methods such as Log-likelihood, Pearson's Chi-Square Test, Point-wise Mutual Information and lastly T-score.
Collocations can strictly range from the basic well-known phrases to rigid word-pair (Bauer, 2012). Comparison of the word association Metrics and the analysis provided grounds that the values acquired range across the board and that it all relied upon the option of the metric association used during the analysis. The appearance of the word values was also prone to be affected as each method displays collocation differently from the other. Pearce suggested techniques such as word association metrics and point-wise mutual information to be used as the primary methods which can bring about the efficiency in some analysis. Collocation is useful in the review of the Voynich Manuscript, but still, contrastive examination should not be limited as it is helpful to the Voynich Manuscript (Guy, 1991) 2.
3 Morphology The Voynich Manuscript through the abundant research has been noted to lack a worldwide embraced morphological structure. Over the years, many techniques supervised, or unsupervised techniques have been put in place to try and study the letters within the Voynich Manuscript and its characterization as a whole. Hammarstrom, one of the professionals relies on an unsupervised algorithm as a way of acquiring salient affixes from a core of a language that is not named. The project is highly dependent on the analysis as various words within the Voynich Manuscript require thorough study and examination. The basics of morphology and morphological analysis on the Voynich Manuscript will be looked from the perspective of Aronoff and Fudeman analysis. Their analytical tests involved splitting the words into very small meaningful portions that that was then put through thorough analysis.
In order for their analysis to be successful, they came up with fundamentals as a guide during the morphological process for any interested party in the analysis. Just as any other experiment, they were prone to possible restrictions and obstacles in the semantic structure while comparing it with other languages (D'Imperio, 1987). This claim was backed up by Jorge Stolfi who also on later period demonstrated a crust-mantle core paradigm within the Voynich Manuscript (Maat, 2004) 2. 1 HISTORY 2. 1 Introduction The Voynich Manuscript is a book that has presented a lot of mysteries surrounding it. Most of the things in the book have never been able to be identified starting with the author of the Mysterious book and its origin. Most features that are associated with the book are unknown to many professionals and scholars who attempted to analyze the book.
In the 1300s there were a lot of merchants who mainly used ships along the Mediterranean Sea and Europe. Inside these ships, the black rats were regular passengers and this explains the fast rate of spread of the disease along Europe. Stephen Skinner, a scholar, draws evidence of his theory that the Voynich Manuscript was written in Northern Italy. He states that in the sections of the manuscript, several reasons like naked women images are seen when they are bathing on pools and absence of Christian conceptual symbols like saints shows directly some of the characteristics of Northern Italy on the 15th century (Audard et al. This leads to a review of the history of Northern Italy and how the plague affected it.
Feudalism that had reigned before was consequentially unavailable in Northern Italy, and ultimately good farmland was abundance, and those who were formerly peasants could now be able to own their land. In addition, the North of Italy become wealthier after the recovery (Carmichael, et al. After Italy, the black plague then spread to other parts of Europe amongst them England in June 1348. By February of 1349, the vast mortality, as it was then well known, affected Yorkshire. This region was referred to as Isurium Brigantum. It led to the introduction of series of laws by the crown and high-class parties that reversed the country's economy to how it was before the arrival of the Black Death. The upper classes displayed their wealth, power and rank by introducing castle building and taking land that belonged to the deceased.
The castles also offered security. Such an example was the Castle Bolton which was an example of a quadrangular castle and was initiated by Sir Richard le Scrope in 1379 and finished in early 1400. It was one of the big success stories to the Scrope family and Yorkshire at the time. On learning the mystery associated with the book, he decided to send a few samples to Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) from Collegio Romano for him to try and unravel the mystery of the book and try to break some codes and hidden meanings. He sent samples not once but twice in a row. Apparently, in 1639 he sent a letter to Kircher which goes in record as the first ever mention of the Manuscript in its many years of existence and up to date it is still in the logs (Buonafalce, 2007).
With such interesting and mysteries the book presented, Kircher tried very hard to acquire the book from Georg Baresch. Barasch declined Kircher's request and instead chose to keep the book for himself while working the crack the riddles in the book. The history of what Kircher did with the book has never been known as there are no records of proof over the few years he had the book. At the end of his life on the earth, Merci lost his sight, and the last few things he did was to sign the letter in his handwriting to affirm its origin. Due to this, it was not known whether Kircher responded to the letters but a friend of Marci, Godefrid Aloys Kinner was on the forefront to consult Kircher on the progress he has been making towards the analysis of the Voynich Manuscript as a way of honoring his Friend Marci ("II.
The Voynich Cipher Manuscript of Roger Bacon: Sketch of Its History," 1928). Before receiving the Manuscript, Kircher had already been a certified author as he had already published various books in his life. The Voynich Manuscript is believed to be among the books concerned. This justifies the fact that the book has only 240 left page since others are missing. In 1973, the second suppression was carried out to the Jesuit Community, and it indeed led to the confiscation of the main important part of the Collegio Romano library. The museum of Kircher fell-prey and it was also confiscated. The new government would then set up the national library just in the building as the Collegio Romano (McKenna & Dolphin Tapes, 1986). 2 THEORIES ON THE VOYNICH MANUSCRIPT The many mysteries surrounding the Voynich Manuscript have led to emergence of several concepts.
Its features have contributed to a lot of people coming up with different theories as a way of trying to give meaning to this renowned book. Below is a compilation of some of the theories that have been attributed to the Voynich Manuscript. 1 Glossolalia Rob Churchill and Gerry Kennedy back in 2004 with their new published booked claimed that the Voynich Manuscript was as a result of the Glossolalia. Glossolalia is described as the art of being able to speak in tongues with a language that is not known. However, he argued that every single character in the text has various markings which were visible under a microscope and are the ones that held the hidden meaning of the Manuscript. He alleged that through this knowledge he was able to work on all the paragraphs of the Voynich Manuscript.
In a way, he was able to facilitate the works of Bacon through his application of the compound microscopic 400 years before Van Leeuwenhoek. Newbold was able to find the features depicting astronomy. He compared an object with four curved arms as correspondence of the galaxy. The Voynich Cipher Manuscript Of Roger Bacon: Sketch of Its Contents," 1928). 4 Joseph Martin Feel Rogers Bacon’s cipher was published in 1943 by Joseph Martin. In the book, he alleged that the Voynich manuscript was a sort of a diary that belonged to scientific work. In his study, he noted that the work in the book was full of notations from the Latin language. The codebook Cipher theory describes the Voynich manuscript to words made of different interconnected codes that required the code breakers to work on them.
The results showed that he pen strokes were made up of a natural language and this refuted the claims that had been made by Johannes (BARLOW, 1986). 3 LANGUAGES 2. 1 Natural There is a theory surrounding the Voynich Manuscript making claims that it was written in a native language. Multiple analyses have disclosed that the text in the manuscript contains patterns that are so much related to those found in the natural language. The characters that came out strongly included the word entropy that resembles the ones in either Latin or English Language. They alleged that 37 plants, one mineral, and six animal were established. These particular items had been mentioned in the Voynich Manuscript which was also expressed regarding diagrams and drawings in the Badianus Manuscript which was an Aztec herbal back in the 15th century.
Also, they claim that there was a painting that contained some atacamite which was believed to be from the colonial New Spain. The atacamite was a representation of the Nahuati language according to them. The atacamite on the painting was claimed to have existed from 1521 to 1576. However, the constructed language theory was accepted for over two centuries since the Voynich Manuscript was realistically created by adding the suffixes. Unfortunately, there is no proposed knowledge on the prefix and suffix in the Voynich Manuscript (Maat, 2004). According to Hoax the Voynich Manuscript has long been researching on, and the root of its origin and its meaning has never been found. Due to its strange features and weird illustrations, many people have concluded that the manuscript could indeed be a hoax.
This is because there has been no information or important message that has been found in its contents. In conclusion, Marcello believes that there was indeed some meaning in the Voynich Manuscript. In light of this claims, Rugg went ahead to publish another article that would demonstrate his argument on why he considered the Manuscript a hoax. Among the many theories that came about regarding the Voynich Manuscript, in the year 1978, a professor at the Yale University Robert Brumbaugh did an analysis on it. He claimed that the Voynich Manuscript was a possible Manuscript that was aimed at convincing Rudolf II the then Emperor to buy it at a high price. Robert believed that the text was written in a complex language just as a way to give a hard time to those who tried to decipher it (Brumbaugh, 1974).
Words that had to mean linked to the artworks did not seem to be more frequent close to the linkage of those words. Words at the commencement of lines under Voynich manuscript were typically longer than words at the conclusion of lines. The distribution of the syllables was similar throughout the text. The Voynich manuscript had a lot of recurrence and structure. The manuscript obeyed Zipf’s law which is an equation that shows connections between the complete numbers of intervals a word was used in a typescript (Goldman, at. Many of the voyage manuscript types were similar but of minute difference which was not of any significance. Interpreters faced challenges since voynich manuscript was highly technical. One method of analyzing from left to right on both sides of each folio.
The text had graphemes the word frequency, and length distribution in the Voynich manuscript is using the information theory. It shows that the Voynich manuscript presents word structure and distribution that is similar to the languages used today. The words that contain the major content is usually scattered in an irregular pattern and fashioned into clusters. Words that contain less meaning are distributed in a manner that looks alike. The words that carry much of the content are disseminated everywhere because they are directly related to the logical aspect of the text as it progresses and the meaning becomes clearer. The patterns formed by the clusters bring out the chronological structure which determines how the usage of the word is specific in contextual domains.
Using information theory, the distribution of a word and where it appears in a text is, therefore, a good measure of the information it carries. Considering the word distribution, the words that are most relevant depend on the setting as opposed to those words that do not add much to the information. The sections of text can thus be differentiated by looking at the distribution of words. For example, when labeling chapters, the perfect way is choosing a word that appears only in that chapter. One can easily tell the chapter of discussion by just coming across a word. However, most words are less concentrated in a text, but the non-uniformities will find a way to associate some words with the specific domains of the text.
Despite this fact, there was no any single picture of these that would easily be distinguished as an existing one. Likewise, apart from Zodiac signs in the Astrological part, all the other illustrations in the manuscript could be ambiguously explained in the entire of the book. Despite the accurate medieval-codex outlook, the source, intention and composition of the Voynich Manuscript remain to be a deep obscurity. Right from the seventeenth century, a lot of attempts at deciphering the text have yielded few cases of victory. Taking heed of the quantitative examination of the structure of the script, however, has instigated some promising cryptographic nature of the script. Through the comparison of the patterns in the use of the most instructive words in the script, it was found that a portion of them reveal interrelatedness in use.
Also, it was revealed that the network of how they are related demonstrated that they share comparable morphological outline in suffixes or prefixes. This means that any language in the Voynich Manuscript has a very close correlation between semantics and morphology while in the cases of Chinese and Ancient Egyptian the tabulated form of their words draw from their connotation. The straightforward methods for generation of arbitrary scripts with some variety of local statistical organization may seem under shallow analysis, rather than a persuading elucidation to the dilemma portrayed by the Voynich Manuscript. Despite this fact, its statistical structure at various stages demands an explanation which can go further in the reproduction of local qualities for instance word forms or local word sequencing.
If a piece has backward writing, the entropy remains the same. (Wiegand et al 2018). This makes entropy an important aspect in the Voynich manuscript. When computing values for word entropy, a piece that has 10,000 words possess word entropy below 13. 287 which is dependent on the frequencies of the word distribution. The two parts had some linguistic connection including the pictorial presentations. For the purpose of collecting a vast amount of information words with similar or almost the same meaning were grouped. In sections that talk about a particular topic, the terms that are most large are those with high-entropy. They are in hundreds of words. Those which related words are smaller are those who have little or no connection to each other.
This, therefore, has facilitated most scholars to the foreground on some of the meaningful linguistic segments of words with the aim of determining their most basic parts. Research has revealed a likelihood of morphological structure within the Voynich Manuscript. (Wiegand, et al. It was a requirement that all the words in the Voynich Manuscript be written obeying a system to enhance appraise by the author. The system employed makes use of the system which integrated a grammar or provided words accumulating markers to extend general roots regarding semantics. A further investigation that was conducted on suffixes revealed unevenness between English and Voynich Manuscript. There were major differences between the topmost two ordered suffixes, thus the top two positioned frequencies of some languages within the many were found and comparison made.
On the observed results, the comparisons on suffix and prefix made between English and the Voynich did not emerge to give any ultimate relationships. It was observed that the Voynich contained numerous prefixes over the whole collection when the only consideration was the top ten frequency ordered prefixes. With the knowledge of the fact that morphology is entirely comprised of different vagueness and also on the language, the results give the basis of the investigational information that is based on the assumption of a very basic meaning of an affix which puts in consideration appropriate word stems or roots ( Matsuo, et al. It is different from the other languages in that aspect where the words have no regular pattern. Many people have often considered the Voynich manuscript as a fraud that could only be produced by speaking in tongues.
This theory is irrelevant since the Voynich manuscript has a whole lot of regularities. These regularities are seen by looking at the syllables which occur together. All words in the Voynich manuscript have three syllabic structures. In the other languages, the particles do not occur that many times. The syllable 4o appears at the beginning of a word while the syllable 89 is usually at the end or the beginning of the word. It could also appear alone. Similarly, the syllable OE is found at the beginning, end or apart. The syllables OE and 89 are suffixes occupying the same space. For instance, in English, it is impossible to use the word "that" more than five times in a phrase. Similarly, words like bought, bough, though, through and tough cannot be used in succession in one sentence.
This shows that the Voynichese language has features that are unique and impossible to conceive in any other language. CHAPTER FOUR 4. 0 Data analysis. Which in our case explains why the maiden was used. Assuming that the author ignored the date and was referring to the 15th century a letter m should appear meaning millennium. However in this page the only letter we can relate to M is the image of the naked woman (Figure 6). Analyzing the dragon we see that it head is looking to the left with open mouth and in let we find visible roman letters. The word hidden here is VIVA. We discover that Kelley is dead not later 1597 Combining all words, VIVA LEX VIARIUS they lead to a name EDWARD KELLEY CREATOR and year 1585.
Summary of results. The author probably is Sir Edward Kelly who live from 1555 to 1597. It was perhaps written in 16th century. The manuscript was most likely written in England and languages used were Latin and English. It is concluded that the relationship or the closeness of the Voynich Manuscript and other natural languages specifically French, Latin, and Greed was weak as compared to others. This is arrived at by the application of the plain affix explanations. The affix definitions when it comes to the morphological structures are complicated, complex and hard to implement. Regarding these, the team established that there is a possibility of morphological structures in the Voynich manuscript but these were not firmly established and hence the team suggested that there is a need for further examination and research in future.
The writing style and the length of the text within the Voynich Manuscript was a key factor to look at during the project. It was noted that the word associations in the manuscript were incredibly weak and this was associated with the fact that the book had been written way back. According to the carbon dating that was performed on the Voynich Manuscript, it was discovered that the parchments and the paints used in the manuscript was dated back to the 15th century. This could have been possible due to the sloppy spellings that existed during that time as an illustration of a language that had no standardized form of writing. The paper also showed that in spite the fact that the Voynich Manuscript portrays some unique choice of words and various illustrations, there was no substantial interrelation between these words and the illustrations.
These properties were compared with other written manuscripts from other existing natural languages. It is therefore important for interested researchers in future to have an idea on what to focus on and exactly what to prioritize. Below are some of the recommendations that will help in future to be able to reduce the scope of study on the Voynich manuscript to identify interrelationship between the manuscript and other materials. The codes and ciphers from one region and those that are found to have been discovered from the same period should be isolated and examined to find any similarities that they may possess than a conclusion can be derived from there. There is need to improve on the algorithms that will be used during extraction of alphabets.
The algorithm should include a variety of languages hence improving the efficiency of relationships with other possible languages Due to the complex nature of writing styles, the researchers need to find out the written texts that correspond to the writing style used in the Voynich Manuscript. , Altmann, E. G. , Rybski, D. , Oliveira Jr, O. N. , & Linder, P. RNA metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus virulence. Swiss medical weekly, 147, w14527. Arutyunov, A. A. & Shilin, S. A. E. Statistical regularity of European languages and Voynich Manuscript analysis. Bardina, S. P, 2017). Bauer, C. 100 Years Times Two: Alan Turing and the Voynich Manuscript. Cryptologia, 36(2), 85-87. doi:10. S. The most mysterious manuscript: The Voynich "Roger Bacon" cipher manuscript. Carbondale. Buonafalce, A. Review of The Curse of the Voynich.
, & Harkness, D. E. The Voynich manuscript. codes: The Voynich manuscript. New Scientist, 210(2813), 44. , & Otto, M. Phenol-Soluble Modulin Toxins of Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 7, 206. Da, F. , Joo, H. DeLay, T. God Is Unconscious: Psychoanalysis and Theology. Wipf and Stock Publishers D'Imperio, M. E. The Voynich manuscript: An elegant enigma. Edwards, H. G. Swansea and Nantgarw Porcelains: A Scientific Reappraisal. Springer (Edwards, at. el 2017) Ferraz de Arruda, H. O. , Kaplan, S. L. , & Hulten, K. G. Springer, Cham González-Bosch, C. Priming plant resistance by activation of redox-sensitive genes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Grassi, L. , Maisetta, G. , Zhou, H. , Wang, Q. , Wang, J. , Tan, J. , Li, J. The Voynich Manuscript is written in Natural Language: The Pahlavi Hypothesis. ArXiv preprint arXiv: 1709.
(Herrmann ,J,M at. al 2017) Robinson, A. Cryptography: The codes that got away. B. Is Place a Text?. In Place, Space and Hermeneutics (pp. Springer, Cham. Jaskiewicz, G. , Zackular, J. P. , Moore, J. L. , Stier, M. , & Inouye, M. Deletion of mazF increases Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner. Pathogens and disease, 75(5). Kennedy, G. , & Churchill, R. & Howden, B. P. Genomic analysis of ST88 community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ghana. PeerJ, 5, e3047. Krocova, Z. 1080/0161-110191889932 Lawrence, S. M. , Corriden, R. , & Nizet, V. Age-appropriate functions and dysfunctions of the neonatal neutrophil. , Balmer, S. , Plachtzik, S. , & Rawyler, N. Sequenzanalysen zur elamischen Strichschrift. Mäder, M. , & Amancio, D. R. Labelled network subgraphs reveal stylistic subtleties in written texts. Journal of Complex Networks. Matsuo, K.
, & Dolphin Tapes. The Voynich manuscript. Big Sur, Ca: Dolphin Tapes. Mlynek, K. D. & Brinsmade, S. R. Nutritional regulation of the Sae two-component system by CodY in Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Bacteriology, JB-00012. Montemurro, M. , Green, E. R. , & Mecsas, J. Neutrophils to the ROScue: mechanisms of NADPH oxidase activation and bacterial resistance. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 7, 373. , Donner, R. A. & Whistler, C. A. Host-selected mutations converging on a global regulator drive an adaptive leap towards symbiosis in bacteria. Rugg, G. , & Taylor, G. Hoaxing statistical features of the Voynich Manuscript. Cryptologia, 41(3), 247-268. doi:10. , Oliveira Jr, O. N. , Amancio, D. R. , Mansur, L. Review of the 3rd European Historical Ciphers Colloquium in Smolenice, Slovakia. Cryptologia, 1-7. Schmeh, K. A Milestone in Voynich Manuscript Research: Voynich 100 Conference in Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
From $10 to earn access
Only on Studyloop