APPLICABILITY OF FLEXTIME SYSTEMS IN PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES A CASE OF AMMAN JORDAN
Signature; ………………………………. Date; …………………………. NAME OF SUPERVISOR Dedication To all the employees of the Amman Jordan private sector who feel that working hours should be applied so as to enhance their working conditions. I would also wish to dedicate it to the managers and directors of the private companies of Amman Jordan who may consider the applicability of working conditions. Acknowledgement It would have been extremely difficult for this thesis to have been completed without the assistance of some good people. 3 Background of the Study 4 1. 1 Research Setting 6 1. 4 Statement of the Problem 8 1. 5 Research Objective 10 1. 6 Research Questions 10 1. 3 Employment regulations and work arrangements 26 2. 4 Benefits of Flextime 27 2. 5 Disadvantages of Flextime 29 2. 3 Conceptual Framework 31 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 32 3. 1 Research Design 32 3. 1 Gender of the Respondents 39 4. 2 Level of education of the Respondents 40 4.
3 Age of the Respondents 41 4. 4 Marital Status 41 4. 5 Number of children under care 42 4. 1 Flextime and work-life balance 53 5. 2 Jobs and positions suitable for system 53 5. 3 Employment Regulations and Flextime Work Arrangements 53 5. 4 Benefits of applicability 54 5. 5 Challenges of Applicability 54 5. The theory of X and Y which were developed by McGregor and they are used to refer to styles of management which are authorities (Theory X) and Participative (Y) were also discussed. They major on employee’s motivation which is in relation with flextime work arrangements. All the variables which comprised of the research questions were discussed under the empirical review. A sample population of 300 respondents who have the information about flextime systems within the area of the study was used and data collected using questionnaires. The data was analyzed using quantitative approach through descriptive and inferential statistics on the responses that were received from the questionnaires, using spreadsheet analysis.
4 Employment regulations and flextime work arrangements………………………. 47 Table 4. 5 Benefits of flextime work arrangements …. 48 Table 4. 6 Challenges of flextime work arrangements ……………. 44 Definition of terms Flextime- It refers to flexible period schedule that makes it possible for employees to adjust the workday commencing and finishing times. System- It refers to a set of components which are connected and grouped to perform a certain function. Private sector- It refers to the part of the country’s economy that is not under the control of the government but individuals or investors. List of Abbreviation CEO: Chief Executive Officer SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Sciences ANOVA: Analysis of Variance CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. 0 Introduction 1. The increase in output levels at work increases the profitability of the organization at a minimum cost as both the organization and the employee will not undergo any extra cost instead the employee will have worked at his or her own comfort.
Flextime policy reduces the possibilities of mothers decreasing their working hours after birth and others having to quit the job after birth. This helps reduce the gender imbalance in working between men and women. Since flextime allows for employees to work at whatever time they are good with it helps boost company productivity because people vary in what time they best work in. Others work best in the morning, others in the afternoon and others at night. The research helped the policymakers in strategizing the direction of implementation of flextime work arrangement systems and coming up with the policies, guideline and rules which will lead to the proper execution of these systems in the private sector of Jordan. This thesis also helped in acquainting knowledge to the academicians and researchers of Amman Jordan and even internationally who may have the zeal and interest of studying flextime work arrangement concept in private organizations or also public sector.
2 Structure of the Thesis Chapter one deals with the background of the study which gives an overview of the research topic in the thesis. It has incorporated the statement of the problem which shows the need for the study. It also has objectives, research questions, hypotheses, the scope of the study, and purpose of the study and limitations of the study. Chapter four clearly talks about data analysis, presentation, interpretation, and discussions of the research findings. The chapter starts with the study of the rate of response where the real representation of the respondents in relation to sample size was determined. Quantitative analysis techniques were applied. Tables and pie charts were used to represent the analyzed data. Finally, chapter five presented the summary of the study, conclusion, recommendations and limitation of the study.
This thus means that one has to try and maintain a balance between the job and his or her social life. This equilibrium is important for a strong life. Work-life balance hence means completing work whether done at the office or at home and leisure time to balance so as to enjoy life fully. It does not literally mean you spend half the time at work and the other half for leisure but it means balancing both to have peace both physically and emotionally. Therefore, work-life balance can be described as the satisfactory level of involvement in an individual private life and the work life. This has affected the workforce life balance of various employees in the private sector industries. Moreover, this issue has contributed to the lack of productivity motivation and key satisfactory concerns in the places of work.
As per the 56 labour codes, on a particular day, the standard working period should be eight hours. In a weeks’ time, it should not at any point exceed forty-eight hours putting in mind six working days. This calculation excludes rest periods and all meal breaks. Often, Arabic customs are indicated in gender responsibilities, whereby traditionally men were viewed as being “bread-winners” while women’s main role being “family management” (Whiteoak et al. The ever-escalating stress on women empowerment through education has led to steady changes in the outline of family life in Jordan and has led to the need for application of flextime systems and work schedules so as to enhance work life and family balance. Around a quarter of women in Jordan are employed as full-time and the style for women to enter the external labour force is swiftly changing, and several of the working women in paid services are graduates.
Both technological and economic development has deeply extended the need for an educated labour force, and ladies are more and more filling these vacancies which call for the need of flextime work arrangements and work-life balance. In this study, the research focuses on the applicability of flextime work systems and arrangements and the guiding regulations which try to manage labour relations in Jordan. In the 2012-2016 statics conducted by statista on workers working on flextime in the United Kingdom, an increase has been noted over the years. The urge to increase the number of flextime systems and flexible working arrangements as headed researchers to switch their attention to flextime concept. Globally, research has been carried out on flextime systems. According to Wickromasinghe and Joyabadu (2007), flextime arrangements is Srilanka has been conducted so as to assist workers to have a good work-life equilibrium.
The study which was done by Information Technology companies in Srilanka indicates that flextime execution is linked with a better synchronization among work and life needs and an improved work situate relations. Through flextime work arrangement people can have more ability to control their private lives responsibilities, manage their work, decrease apprehension and trauma and improve their cheerfulness and belongings. For the company’ level, efficient time usage yields to improved productivity levels by attracting more talented workers, (Downesand and Koekener 2011). Researches from Kenya show that benefits of flextime arrangements of work include the avoidance of rest traffic, periods and reduce the wasted time in traffic. More of the effects of flextime work arrangement on employees in the banking sector, the descriptive and inferential statistics showed a positive relation among flextime arrangement and the performance of the employee, (Kadoga and Mwebi 2015).
The way in which a balance can be achieved in work life and improved is a very significant issue in the field of human resource management. iii. To find out if employment regulations on flextime work arrangements. iv. To evaluate the benefits of implementing flextime working arrangements. v. What are the challenges brought about by flextime working arrangements? 1. 7 Hypotheses A hypothesis is a preposition originated for experimental testing or a faltering expressive assertion that discusses the relationship among two or more variables (Cooper and Schindler 2004). The following alternative hypothesis guided the research: H1: Flextime work arrangement affects the social life of the employee. H2: In certain jobs and positions the flextime arrangement is greater than the fixed time arrangement. H3: There are regulations on flextime work arrangement systems in Amman Jordan.
According to Rau and Hyland (2002), flextime can be described as an alternative to the normal day working. It can also be described as the flexible period schedule that makes it possible for employees to adjust the workday commencing and finishing times. Goudswaard et al (2013) refers flextime working planning as the plans that the company and the employees create to customize the usual working period patterns so as to meet their ever gradual wants like variations in service and fabrication demands or work life responsibilities to realize an equilibrium amongst the organization prerequisites and the commitment of personal life of the workers. System It refers to a set of components which are connected and grouped to perform a certain function. Company It is an organization or a firm which offers goods and services for profit generation.
In another instance, a worker may be required to work for 40 hours a week but the company has no core hours. In this case, the starting and end times vary on a daily or weekly basis depending on the workers preferences. These two cases of flexible work arrangements can be modified to include cases where a worker is working but they are not present at the worksite, in the instance of teleworking, for the portion or the whole of the workweek. Another instance of a flexible working pattern is compressed working hours. In this case, workers are required to work fulltime hours in less than the traditional working days of 5 hours a week. With this type of job flexibility, two or more workers are involved in one full-time job where each one of them works on a part-time basis.
Examples, one person may work on Monday and Tuesday while the worker works on Wednesday and Thursday as per the directives from the employer. The two workers share the same task and split the other in a way that ensures equality and that work gets done properly and in a timely manner. It may also involve two workers sharing the same position where they decide when each of them will work and which tasks each employer will work. Having also flexibility in the scheduling of hours worked which includes alternatives working schedules (example, compressed worksheets) and arrangements regarding break schedules and shifts. An example is where a worker working as a research may work from home when working on a complicated and long project to avoid getting many interruptions in the office.
Satellite location or telework which involves working remotely from a designated work centre, for example, a worker working from the nearest telework to avoid the long distance of commuting to work. Alternative location involves workers working from one location for part of the year and then moving to a second location for the best part of the year. Example, working in Cozmo, Abdoun for one part of the year then moving to Cozmo, Sweifieh for the remaining part of the year. The working hours’ concept was first introduced back in the 1960s and become popular later in the 1970s. Fuels are saved because there is less travelling among the workers as they can do their work from the comfort of their room without much supervision.
2 Flexible working schedule theory The waves of flexible working schedules were first recognized in the early 20th century. This is because of its importance in offering flexibility to parents, workers and other in an effort to reconcile work and family life in a very busy global environment (Bailyn, L. 1993), (Bailyn, L. Over the years, there have been numerous changes in workforce demographics. This management style is more participative and decentralized. The style encourages more trust-based and collaborative relations between workers and their managers. In approach Y, managers encourage workers to develop their skills while suggesting improvement and the worker have greater responsibility hence more motivated. Their work schedules are more flexible and workers can take control of their schedule unlike where the schedule is imposed by the management.
This management style encourages open communication in workers rather than controlling them. Furthermore, job satisfaction may include many dimensions such as supervisor, colleagues, salary, work, and promotion opportunity. Therefore, job satisfaction can be linked to flextime work schedule since with such systems employees can have work-life balance thus satisfaction. Work-life balance is described as the ability of a person to handle conflict or harmony between work and non-work concerns. It is usually gained when individuals are mutually satisfied with their work needs and their personal lives. Often, it yields benefits for both sides which in turn positively improve the productivity of a firm (Palmeri, 2013). The management system can be used even on the high-skilled employees for the advancement of career purposes.
Sectoral competitive pressure and regulatory pressures are making many companies in the world to revise their working schedule. Companies have in recent times begun the introduction of flexibility measures to increase the responsiveness of their services and product to the market needs. However, regulations by the government play a major role in determining the working times in the job environment and determining how hours to work in a day. According to Schieman et al. When people are trying to balance between, work and home responsibilities or the working hours, this result in exhaustion reduced effectiveness and stress. According to Dex and Scheibl, (1999), a constant outline of work-life divergence may face the risk of stifling worker productivity and economic competitiveness. The imbalance between the demands made on individuals, uncertainty and how individuals respond to change are the main causes of stress among individuals.
Stress could be either be more stimulus-based or response-based (Matteson and Ivancevich, 1987). In stimuli based, a force or demand acting upon individual results in psychological or physiological strain while in response based, more emphasis is placed on the physiological or psychological responses of an individual to environmental stress factors. Trade unions should dictate to the organization on shaping worker policies. 2 Jobs and Positions Suitable for System The society of human resource management did a survey and found out that, 59% of human resource professionals revealed that their organization does provide flexible working hours for their employees and another 37% reported that their companies had adopted a compressed work arrangement. From the study, the professional in the human resource sector realized the difficulty in balancing work and other schedules and that a great threat in retaining human resources in an organization.
Al-Kasasbeh did a study on the influence of Flexible Working-Time Arrangements on Faculty Satisfaction and Human Resource Retention at Amman Arab University in Jordan and came up with the following conclusions; - Since there is a positive impact of adaptable working hours on both of staff fulfilment, what's more, human asset maintenance, it is important to give careful consideration to create staff abilities, what's more, mentalities in the utilization of e-learning framework and collaborate with understudies from home. Amman Arab University is encouraged to give careful consideration to create strong motivations, remuneration, vocation arranging and extra advantages frameworks in accordance with the college's vision of business and greatness to empower the college to draw in the workforce and hold them. According to Melamed et al (1995) organizations are supposed to keep their workers satisfied as dissatisfied employees are much more prone to excessive and absenteeism.
This two factors in place, organizations are faced with low productivity and therefore they can’t compete fairly in the market. Research has previously proved that job satisfaction has been defined and measured as a concept with many factors and a global construct. Luthans, (2006) stated that job satisfaction can be recognized as the positive state of emotions that arises from work experience and valuation while Siha& Monroe (2006) defined job satisfaction as the positive attitude and feeling towards ones occupational. Therefore, it very important to keep workers motivated and this can happen only if they have a flexible work schedule where they have time to carry out their personal duties and have family time. These, in the long run, lead to concrete and tangible work-life balance, employee engagement and a more satisfied and motivated workforce.
The regulation covers different types of employees. It covers employees who have spent three or more consecutive years working for the same employers, employees who have family responsibilities- either pregnant or those workers who assume the parental responsibility of children. It also covered employees who have the responsibility to take care of ill members or the disabled members of their family (elderly included). Lastly, it covers disabled employees and university students who are employed. Where people work from their homes, a lot of time is saved that could have been spent in traffic jams. Also, fatigue and stress are reduced and not much movement in the workplace. This is very beneficial to employees who may be having health complication such as cardiac issues and lung problems.
Because working from home leads to less fuel consumption and reduction of traffic jams, environmental pollution is greatly reduced. With flexible working schedules, employees have much control over their working hours. According to Dalton &Mesch (1990), flexible working hours reduce employee turnovers by about 25%. This is because employees can still make it to the office after carrying out their daily errand and family duties and they don’t have to fake sick offs. This arrangements, employees are more relaxed can give their all to the company thus increasing productivity. Also, employees are not burdened with rescheduling their personal tasks to attend to their jobs. For the organization, the cost of replacing workers working is highly reduced are workers are satisfied hence do not resign.
In some organizations, managers follow the face management routine (watching employees work all day long) and cannot cope with flexible working where they cannot watch the employee. Flexible working schedules require a lot of faith and in the employees since their manager doesn’t see how much work the employees are doing every single day. Working from homes gives the society a wrong idea about one that they are not taking working seriously. This can lead to misunderstanding between you and your neighbours and friend. Again with flexible working schedules, there is no clear definition between home and work. An ultimate sample ought to be huge enough to provide a suitable representative of the population and little enough to be chosen economically, that is in terms of subject accessibility.
Probability sampling method is was employed in this research since statistical analyses can be done to estimate population parameters from sample statistics and one can estimate the amount of sampling error and thereby determine the precision of the sample from the target population. Stratified random sampling procedure to apply in which a targeted population is divided into dissimilar segments and then a simple random sample is taken from each group who has the information on screening for the applicability of systems in public sector companies of Amman Jordan. According to (Gay 1992) as stated by Mutia (2015), a sample of 10% of the huge population is termed minimum while a sample of 20% may be essential for lesser populations, this sample size is suitable. This study will adopt 20% of the target population.
The foundation for applying the questionnaire incorporated the reality that: its ability to get out to a huge number of respondents in a short time, ability to offer respondents sufficient time to answer to the items, provides a sense of confidentiality to the respondent and it is a purpose method since no prejudice ensuing from the personal character (Owens, 2002). The questionnaire was divided into main areas of research apart from the first component which will include demographic individuality of all the respondents. Another section was organized according to the specific research variables. It was made apparent that contribution was intentional and the respondents were liberated to refuse or pull out any time throughout the research era. The respondents were not to be forced into contributing to the research.
It refers to the degree to which a study instrument gives dependable outcomes or data after repetitive trials. If the researcher runs a trial to a variable twice and detects a comparable score on the second supervision as the first trial, then it can be noted that there is dependability of the instrument. Reliability is apprehensive of regularity, dependability or steadiness of a trial (Nachmias, 2006). The researcher calculated the dependability of the questionnaire to establish its uniformity in testing. The reliability of the questionnaire was appraised by evaluating the Cronbach Alpha of the outcomes of the pretest study. Descriptive statistics refers to a collection of statistical techniques that are used to explain the essential characteristics of the data in a research and present straightforward summaries about the sample and the measures.
Descriptive statistics was therefore used to illustrate the crucial features of the data in the study and it provided summaries about the samples and the measures. Inferential statistics by use of ANOVA refers to a set of statistical techniques and sculpts used to draw inferences that broaden past the instantaneous data about a population from quantitative data connecting to a casual example, it is used to make decisions of the likelihood that an observed dissimilarity between sets is a reliable one or whether it might have taken place by chance in a research. Inferential statistics thus dealt with presumptions about a population based on consequences got from samples so as to test for the hypothesis of the thesis. The outcomes were presented by percentages and frequencies for interpretations.
This showed a good turnout. 2 Demographic Information 4. 1 Gender of the Respondents The research sought to determine the respondent’s gender. From figure 2 on the gender of the respondents, 72% of the respondents pointed out that they were male whereas 28% of the respondents indicated that they were female. This is a sign that the majority of the respondents were male. From the figure below, 78% of the respondents indicated that they were married. This is an indication that the respondents had families. Figure 5: Marital status 4. 5 Number of children under care The thesis wanted to establish the number of children under care. From the figure below, 46% of the respondents indicated that they had 1-2 children under care. 8 Schedule The research sought to find out whether the private sector companies of Jordan had schedule for employees.
As per the figure below, 80% of the respondents indicated that there were no such schedules. This indicated that most of the Jordan private companies do not offer schedules to their workers. Figure 9: schedule 4. 3 Flextime and work-life balance. 248 Balance between demands made on individuals 2. 116 Source field data (2018) This, therefore, means that enhanced job satisfaction of the workers was the major effect of flextime system on the work-life balance of employees in private companies of Amman Jordan. This was in line with to Schieman, 2013; Schieman, Milkie, & Galvin, (2009), who stated that workers who are highly skilled are more likely to be provided with flexibility and autonomy over how they organize their work to better performance and therefore companies with such workers are more likely to apply management system.
The balance between demands made on individuals was the least effect of flextime system on the work-life balance of employees in private companies of Amman Jordan. This finding was contrary to Mattesonand Ivancevich (1987) who said that balance on individual demands had taken a large part in many workers in the private sector companies. 857 Source, field data (2018) This means that majority of the respondents agreed that jobs involving women were the most suitable job for applicability in Amman Jordan. This was in agreement with Luthans, (2006) who stated that job satisfaction can be recognized as the positive state of emotions that arises from work experience and valuation. Skilled jobs were agreed to be the least suitable job for applicability of in Amman Jordan.
This was in contrary to Scordato& Harris (1990), who said that arrangement system can be applied in different, functional and positions such as day care directors, line managers, international managers, graphic designers, financial analysts, network engineers, and other many positions. 5 Employment Regulations and Flextime Work Arrangements The study sought to establish employment regulation and work arrangements in Amman Jordan. This was in line with the Regulation of Flexible Employment which was officially published and gazette on March 16, 2017 as (Regulation No. 22 of 2017) which states that some jobs types are offered the right and opportunity to choose flexible working arrangements, with the consent of their employers, based on their personal and family circumstances, requirements and needs. Company’s policies were the least known regulation since many employees did not know that it was stated in the policies of the private companies they were working for.
6 Benefits of Applicability The study sought to establish the benefits of application of systems in private sector companies of Amman Jordan. From the study as shown in the table below, the most benefit accrued by flextime applicability was improvement of comfort efficiency on the job with a mean 3. 147 Source, field work 2018 This means that majority of the respondents agreed that improves comfort efficiency on the job was the most likely to be enjoyed benefit if the application of systems was put in place in Amman Jordan private companies. This was in agreement with Castillo, Welch, Sarver, (2012) who stated that flexible working schedules, employees are able to effectively meet personal obligations, family needs, and life responsibilities without much hustle. The study also found out that the least likely to be enjoyed benefit was a reduction in overtime costs.
This was contrary to Dalton & Mesch (1990) who stated that flexible working hours reduce employee turnovers by about 25%. 7 Challenges of Applicability The study sought to establish likely challenges faced through the applicability of systems in private sector companies of Amman Jordan. This was with a line with Earle, (2003) who commented that flexible working hours may not be suitable for employees who thrive well in an office environment and do not share same working schedules as their colleagues. The study also found out that lack of coverage was the least challenge affecting system applicability in private sectors of Amman Jordan. 8 Hypothesis testing The researcher conducted a correlation analysis to test the following hypotheses: H1: Flextime work arrangement affects the social life of the employee.
H2: In certain jobs and positions the flextime arrangement is greater than the fixed time arrangement. H3: The private sector companies of Jordan are ready to implement flextime work arrangement systems. 146 1 Sig. (2-tailed). 313 N 50 50 50 50 Challenges of flextime Pearson Correlation. 079 1 Sig. (2-tailed). The benefits of factors had r=0. 135, p=0. This shows a significant negative relationship with systems. This leads to acceptance of the alternative hypothesis H4 that work arrangement has significant benefits to both the employee and the organization. These findings relevantly apply to directors in the private companies to ensure that flextime work arrangements bring a positive impact which will enhance the company’s benefits. 1 Flextime and work-life balance The study determined that been a tool to enhance job satisfaction of the workers was the most people agreed to mostly enhance work-life balance of employees in private companies of Amman Jordan.
On the other hand, the balance between demands made on individuals was the least effective on work-life balance in private companies of Amman Jordan. 2 Jobs and positions suitable for system The study found out that, jobs involving women was strongly agreed to be the major job suitable for applicability of systems in Amman Jordan. On the other hand, the study determined that skilled job was agreed as the least expected job to be done under a system in Amman Jordan. 3 Employment Regulations and Flextime Work Arrangements As the study sought to establish employment regulation and work arrangements in Amman Jordan. Most of the respondents agreed that difficulty in supervision was found to be the highly likely challenge of applicability as the fact that flexibility may cause lack of coverage was found to be the least challenge which is affecting the applicability a system in private sector companies of Amman Jordan as it is seen from the findings above.
3 Recommendations The research recommended that private sector companies should employ the system since it enhances work-life balance of employees where they will be able to work under their comfort time and place without the need to be physically present at their workplace as they can as well have some sense of their family. The research suggests that jobs involving women are the most suitable jobs for the system in an organization since women have some several responsibilities including taking care of their children at home. The study also recommends that jobs involving skilled manpower should not at any time be practised under the system as they really require the physical presence of the skilled employees in an organization. The study recommends that organizations should thoroughly understand regulations regarding the application of systems in an organization to their employees for better achievement of the company’s goals and objectives where they should also make sure their employees understand well policies involving systems and be conversant before embracing such working changes.
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W. Hypothesis and hypothesis testing. , & Kuria, S. Effect of Corporate Wellbeing Practices On Employees’ Performance among Commercial Banks in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 1, 1-16. Whiteoak, J. , Crawford, N. Appendices Appendix 1: Letter of Introduction to the Respondents Private Sector Companies Address Amman, Jordan Dear Respondent, RE: REQUEST TO COLLECT SURVEY DATA I am currently a student of The University of Jordan pursuing a Master Degree of Human rights & human development. I am carrying out a research on the topic, “Screening for the Applicability of Flextime Working Arrangement in Private Companies of Amman Jordan”. I kindly request you to complete and return the attached questionnaires to enable me fulfill this course requirement. Confidentiality on any responses given will be guaranteed.
Thank you in advance. Describe your work-life balance? Very well balance Somewhat Balance balance some out balance very out balance 10. Is your currently job under a schedule? YES NO PART B: i) Flextime and work life balance To what extent will implementation of working have the following effects on employees work life balance? Enhanced job satisfaction Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Performance of employees is affected Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Globalization of work force and people can work in different countries Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Balance between demands made on individuals Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree ii) Jobs and positions suitable for System To what extent are the following jobs suitable for system applicability? Jobs involving women Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Day care jobs Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Skilled jobs Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree iii) Employment regulation and flexible work arrangements To what extent are the following regulations known to Amman Jordan employees? Regulation on flexible employment Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Labor codes Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Company policies Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree iv) Benefits of To what extent will implementation of working benefit the private sector companies of Amman Jordan? improves comfort efficiency on the job Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree reduces tardiness & Absenteeism Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree reduces overtime costs Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree contributes in reducing traffic conjunction Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree helps to meet family needs and personal obligations Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree v) Challenges of implementing working systems Please indicate to what extent the following challenges will affect the implementation of working systems? may cause lack of coverage Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree may cause lower turnover Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree In schedule, staff may be more difficult to supervise Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Are you agreeing to apply schedule in your company? Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Disagree Thank you.
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