Women and Gender Construction
However, statistics indicate increased gender violence and little or no improvement in the standing of women economically as compared to men over time in a mockery of all the concerted effort, (Ferrante, 2011). Why are conditions of women not improving despite all the effort being put in? The worsening position and violence against women in society could be either an indication that that there is not enough effort or the effort being put in lacks genuine sincerity, therefore, putting women in a worse condition than before, (Fisher & Silber, 2003). Modern economies that focus mainly on the monetary contribution of citizens towards the economy contribute greatly towards belittling of women and their contribution towards society and world economies, (Alam, 2018). Modern economies that focus mainly on the use of GDP as a measure of the economic contribution of production in countries and the measure of the contribution of the genders towards the economy highly discredit the work done by women.
The contribution of women to production towards sustenance of their families, children and communities and society is ignored in the measurement of production in economic systems that pride themselves on inclusive growth and financial inclusion of women in economies. Thus, an established norm is created-the white mainstream norm- and it provides grounds for discrimination that no longer identifies skin color as its premise but cultural differences. Therefore religion and culture become infused with race and the notion of multiculturalism becomes the backdrop of discrimination. Additionally the role of the savior as Western cultures embodied is an attempt to belittle and dehumanize Eastern practices as backwards, uncivilized, uneducated, and undemocratic. Through colonial practices Islamic males have been placed high on the social ladder as a result of colonialism.
In places where colonialism took place, power women may have held in their culture diminished and in place patriarchy took root. Discrimination based on skin color has become exclusion on grounds of cultural differences. Thus cultural practices that are not part of the norm become ostracized and over emphasized, (Fisher & Silber, 2003). The othering project includes the difference in garment between Western and Eastern people. A brown woman wearing a hijab reinforces cultural differences, dividing us and them, further. These cultural differences become the foundation for an implicit form of discrimination. Resource grab that is encouraged by the patriarchal economic model creates situations where men, who are stronger both socially and economically, grabbing resources from women who are vulnerable. The culture of trampling on the vulnerable seeps down to basic everyday relationships between the two genders whereby men adopt violence towards women as encouraged by economic models that focus on growth that is spurred by forceful grabbing of anything that the stronger person feels that they must have for themselves.
Such a culture encourages “sex crimes”, as corporate media likes to call it. There is, therefore, a lot of lack of genuineness and authenticity in claims by governments that they include women in economic growth while they encourage violence towards women through such economic models, (Conway, 2014). Political leaders in many countries around the world propagate economic ideas that are shaped by the politics that put men at the apex of the economic model while at the same time belittling women. There is a need to recognize the big contribution that women are making in ensuring the sustenance of the society. African American Women Today and Possible Futures African American Women Today and Possible Futures: African Americans today have a considerably better political and social standing than that they previously held.
It seems that the trajectory of discrimination against African Americans has been steadily downward, (Simms, 2001). Since this is so, African American women, it seems, would now have the ability to seek the promotion of rights for their gender to the same extend, if not more than, promotion for their race. However, despite this theory appearing logical, it may not reflect reality. A shift suddenly occurred in June 2008; Clinton’s favorability among black diminished as Obama’s steadily increased, (Simms, 2001). Judging from the outcome of the primary election it would seem that Clinton’s image among African Americans, and the electorate as a whole, did not improve. Thus, it seems that the 2008 primary election demonstrated that for African American women their race still comes first.
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